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Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an ester of the trimethylated amino acid, L-carnitine, and is synthesized in the brain, liver and kidney by a specific enzyme carnitine acetyltransferase, which declines with age in animals. ALC facilitates the uptake of acetyl-groups into the mitochondria during fatty acid oxidation, enhances acetylcholine production and stimulates protein and membrane phospholipid synthesis. ALC is actively transported across the blood-brain barrier. It influences the cholinergic system as a cholinergic receptor agonist (facilitator) and may also promote synthesis and release of acetylcholine. More generally, ALC participates in cellular energy production and in maintenance and repair processes in neurons.
ALC aids in the transport of substances across the membrane of mitochondria, thereby participating in the production of energy within the brain. ALC reverses the age-related decline in the number of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors on the neuron membrane. ALC elevates the levels of neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF). The neurotrophins are a family of structurally related proteins that function during development to guide the differentiation and growth of neurons. They also participate in the maintenance of adult neurons and are important in the repair of damage.
ALC reduces deficits in brain energy metabolism and phospholipid metabolism in rats by aiding mitochondrial function. ALC improves nerve regeneration in rats and protects neurons from the toxicity of mitochondrial uncouplers or inhibitors. Feeding senescent rats with ALC restores levels of this metabolite to those found in tissues of young rats. Treatment of these rats with ALC restores cardiolipin in mitochondrial membranes to levels which are found in younger rats. Cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol) is a phospholipid which is biosynthesized and concentrated almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is the only cardiolipid whose levels are found to be reduced in the mitochondria of older rats. Maximal activity of cytochrome c oxidase, necessary for cellular energetics, appears to depend upon cardiolipin levels. Clinical trials with ALC showed some improvements in cognitive function and improvement in memory, visuospatial capacity, vocabulary recall, cooperation, sociability and attention.
Plant-based materials capable of increasing an organism’s resistance to stressors of differing origin. Adaptogens are believed to reinforce (increase) the non-specific power of resistance of the body against physical, chemical or biological noxious agents. By definition, they must have a normalizing influence independent of the physical condition of the organism, must be innocuous, and must not influence normal body functions more than required to achieve a stable condition.
Proprietary blend of Eleutherococcus senticosus (leaf, stem, root), Schisandra chinensis (seed), Aralia mandshurica (flower), Crataegus oxyacantha (leaf), Viburnum sargenti (leaf, berry) , Glycyrrhiza uralensis (root), Rhaponticum carthamoides (root), Rhodiola rosea (flower), Sorbus aucuparia (whole plant), and Iconotus obliquus (root).
Alpha-glycerolphosphoryl choline (alpha-GPC)
Alpha-glycerolphosphoryl choline (alpha-GPC) is a premier choline donor. Choline is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Clinical studies indicate that alpha-GPC assists with memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. Alpha-GPC has also been shown to augment mind-to muscle neural communication, helping to optimize muscular power output, sharpen agility and reaction times, and delay mental fatigue. Studies demonstrate enhanced release of growth hormone following exercise in association with alpha-GPC supplementation.
A dicarboxylic acid component in energy production and glucose formation via the citric acid cycle as well as oxidation and synthesis of the amino acids L-glutamine, L-glutamate, L-arginine and L-proline.
An important cellular component, which is required for critical energy production steps inside the body’s cells. It can work in concert with Vitamins C and E and is an important antioxidant.
Amla - Emblica officinalis is a shrub that sometimes grows into a deciduous tree with feathery leaves and green fleshy fruit, indigenous and cultivated in the forests and seacoasts of India and Kashmir. The fruit which is also called Indian gooseberry, has been used as a food and in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. Amla fruit is rich in antioxidants including vitamin C, and is a potent scavenger of free radicals.
Apple extract – Standardized to phloridizin. (fruit – Malus domestica)
Contains alpha-D-glucosidase inhibitors that act primarily by decreasing disaccharide hydrolysis thereby reducing the amount of free monosaccharides available for absorption in the intestine. Phloridzin, an alpha-D-glucosidase inhibitor, also acts directly on free glucose absorption in the jejunum, helping to reduce postprandial serum glucose.
A natural pentose (5-carbon sugar), which is poorly absorbed, and is an uncompetitive selective inhibitor of intestinal sucrase activity. Contributes to the suppression of glycemic response after ingestion of sucrose. The enzyme sucrase is responsible for the digestion of sucrose (table sugar), which is derived from sugar beets and sugar cane.
A conditionally-essential amino acid necessary for protein synthesis, precursor to nitric oxide, a compound responsible for multiple functions within the body including supporting the immune system and increasing blood flow (vasodilation). Participates in the maintenance of muscle and lean tissue throughout the body. The body can produce this amino acid. However, in the young, production may not meet requirements.
Artichoke leaf extract – Standardized to cynarin. (leaf – Cynara scolymus)
An herbal extract containing phenolic acids, lactones and flavonoids that has shown the ability to encourage bile flow in studies. May also exhibit antiemetic, spasmolytic and carminative effects as well as hepatoprotective activity.
A carotenoid found in the microaglae Haematococcus pluvialis. Astaxanthin gives pink and red color to salmon, shrimp and lobster. It is a powerful lipid soluble antioxidant and has a unique role in protecting cell membranes because of its chemical structure and its ability to span the double layer cell membrane. Astaxanthin can protect the cell from the inside out. Astaxanthin can also act as a bridge for transporting free radicals to other antioxidants. It protects against oxidative damage to cell membranes and tissues.
Astragalus extract (root – Astragalus membranaceus)
The flowering plant genus Astragalus L. contains upwards of 2500 mostly perennial species, is found growing on a global scale, and is distributed primarily around the northern hemisphere and South America. Astragalus is an important herb containing bioactive constituents such as astragalosides, beta-sitosterol and isoflavones. The roots of this herb have been traditionally used to strengthen the immune system. Evidence indicates that the roots possess immunopotentiating properties by activating immune cells such as the B (lymphocyte) cells and stimulating the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes involved in immune enhancement.
Ashwagandha extract – Standardized to withanolides. (root - Withania somnifera)
A low-lying perennial shrub found growing in Africa, the Mediterranean and India. Ashwagandha has been widely used in the traditional Indian Ayurvedic medical system for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions and to facilitate overall health and longevity. Some animal studies have indicated positive antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress effects. The extract contains withanolides, chlorogenic acid, seopoletin and beta sitosterol.
Bacopa extract – Standardized to bacosides. (leaf/stem - Bacopa monniera)
Bacopa is also known as brahmi. It is a well-known herb traditionally employed in the Ayurvedic system, used for supporting memory and brain function. The extract has potent antioxidant properties and can inhibit lipid peroxidation as well as improve brain and nervous system function. The active constituents of Bacopa monniera, called bacosides, enhance mental retention capacity. It facilitates acquisition, consolidation, and retention of newly acquired behaviors.
Barley malt extract
Is grain syrup made from sprouting barley seeds, which are then toasted and ground. This means of reducing a complex carbohydrate to a simple sugar results in a subtle sweetener and flavoring agent.
Beet powder (root – Beta vulgaris)
The familiar plant Beta vulgaris is known as sugar beets and it is commonly used as food. It is commonly used as a red colorant in various products. Traditionally used as a liver protectant and in response to liver damage.
Also known as trimethylglycine. This ingredient plays a role in metabolic processes through donation of a methyl group (one carbon metabolism) as for example the conversion of homocysteine to the amino acid L-methionine.
A powerful carotenoid antioxidant that acts through direct quenching or modification of oxidative free radical reactions. It is a precursor of vitamin A. May help in cell function and prevention of some forms of cancer.
Soluble fiber known as beta-D-glucan. These compounds are usually referred to as beta-glucans, and they comprise a class of non-digestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in such sources as oats, barley, yeast, bacteria, algae and mushrooms. Oat beta-glucan is a soluble fiber located mainly in cell walls that is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the sugar D-glucose. Studies have shown that a healthy diet that includes beta-glucan can aid in maintaining normal levels of blood cholesterol and glucose.
The exact mechanism of beta-glucan's possible hypocholesterolemic effect is not clear. It appears to promote increased excretion of bile acids, which could help explain its possible cholesterol moderating activity. Beta-glucan may also promote cholesterol clearance from the plasma via reverse cholesterol transport.
The mechanism of the glucose-regulatory activity of beta-glucan is also not well understood. Beta-glucan may delay gastric emptying time and consequently affect the rate of uptake of D-glucose from the small intestine. The high viscosity of beta-glucan may delay absorption of glucose. Some studies have indicated that beta-glucan may have immunomodulatory activity.
Beta-phenyl-Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (phenibut)
Beta-phenyl-Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (phenibut) is a phenyl derivative of the naturally occurring inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Since its discovery in the 1960s, Phenibut has been used for stress, anxiety and insomnia. It is a GABA receptor agonist, demonstrated to have a calming effect. Phenibut may potentiate the actions of selected prescription medications including MAO inhibitors, tranquilizers, narcotics as well as alcohol. It may modulate the function of some epilepsy prescription medications.
Is a plant-derived sterol, also known as a phytosterol. Plant sterols or phytosterols are common components of plant foods, especially plant oils, seeds and nuts, cereals and legumes. Scientific evidence suggests that plant phytosterols may help to maintain cholesterol levels already within the normal range by inhibiting absorption of dietary cholesterol when consumed as part of a low cholesterol dietary program. Stigmasterol and campesterol are also phytosterols commonly found associated with beta-sitosterol.
Bilberry extract – Standardized to anthocyanosides (fruit - Vaccinium myrtillus)
An extract standardized to contain bioflavonoids known as anthocyanosides, which may support eye health, by acting as antioxidants. Evidence suggests they may also improve microvascular blood flow and provide gastroprotective effects.
Black cohosh extract (root - Cimicifuga racemosa)
An American wildflower from the buttercup family. Black cohosh extract has been used since the early 1900’s as a “woman’s tonic” and can help reduce menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. It may also act as an anti-inflammatory.
The small, shrubby perennial tree, Ribes nigrum, native to central and northern Europe, northern Asia and New Zealand, produces this dark purple to almost black edible berry. Black currants, also called cassis berries, have been consumed as a food and used in traditional herbal medicine for centuries. Black currant berries have very high levels of anthocyanins, compounds that possess high levels of antioxidant capacity, and that are also responsible for the berry’s dark purple-black color. Black currants are also high in polyphenolics and vitamin C.
A water-soluble B vitamin that plays a role in carbohydrate utilization and the production of important fatty acids. Biotin assists in metabolism of fatty acids and utilization of B vitamins. It is also important in energy producing steps during metabolism in the cells of the body.
Bitter orange extract – Standardized to synephrine. (pericarp - Citrus aurantium)
An extract of the fruit, bitter orange (also known as Seville or sour orange), with the rind. Over the centuries bitter oranges have been highly valued for their food and medicinal properties. Bitter orange contains important neuroactive amines such as synephrine, octopamine and tyramine. Synephrine and octopamine are similar to the catecholamines, noradrenaline and adrenaline found in the sympathetic nerve fibers. The most active constituent of Citrus aurantium L. is synephrine.
Studies show that in human subjects bitter orange extracts, along with other constituents, stimulate lipolysis, and enhance metabolic rate and fat oxidation through increased thermogenesis by stimulating beta-3-adreno receptors thus contributing to weight loss. Synephrine is believed to act on adrenergic receptors and activate thermogenesis.
Boswellia extract – Standardized to boswellic acids. (gum resin – Boswellia serrata)
Obtained from the Boswellia serrata tree that grows in the dry hills of India. The active compound found is boswellia are boswellic acids, which may reduce intestinal inflammation.
Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA): [L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-valine]
Essential amino acids that may be limiting in muscle repair and synthesis regardless of age. Also used by the muscles for fuel and tissue repair especially during injury or during strenuous exercise when carbohydrate stores are depleted.
Of these three amino acids, L-leucine is most important for prevention of muscle mass loss with aging (sarcopenia), maintenance of exercise quality and intensity and faster recovery from workouts.
Found in a variety of similar minerals all related to borax, sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7·10H2O). It is a relatively rare element in the earth's crust, representing only 0.001%. Borax is necessary in small amounts for plant growth, and is considered an essential nutrient. This trace element is thought to support the activity of vitamin D in enhancing calcium and estrogen metabolism.
Burdock extract (root – Arctium lappa)
This biennial plant grows in open spaces and along roadsides around the world. Burdock grows from a fleshy taproot and produces large, heart-shaped, hairy leaves and red-violet flower heads surrounded by numerous hooked bracts that form a bur-like cup. Traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal complaints and skin conditions, and is thought to have immunological and anti-inflammatory activity. May help protect the liver against harmful metabolic by-products.
A trimethylxanthine alkaloid derived primarily from coffee and tea. It exhibits stimulatory actions in the central nervous system and muscles, and enhances mental energy and focus. Caffeine promotes alertness and focus by increasing norepinephrine excretion and enhancing neural activity. Many of its effects are due to its competitive antagonism of adenosine receptors.
A major mineral for bone health along with calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Calcium is essential for developing and maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It also assists in blood clotting, muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Calcium is a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions.
A high protein, high calcium nutrient derived from milk. Caseinates aggregate in the stomach so that the protein peptides and amino acids pass more slowly through the gut, which enhances a feeling of satiety while prolonging the supply of nitrogen to the muscle tissue.
Carrageenan is the name given to a family of hydrocolloid polysaccharides obtained from the red seaweeds. This plant based gum serves as both a thickener and an aid in moisture retention.
The basic building block of a carbohydrate is a sugar molecule, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet. They provide the body with the fuel it needs for physical activity and for proper organ function. Carbohydrates come in a variety of forms. The most common and abundant are sugars, fibers, and starches.
Is essential for the transport of fatty acids into the cellular organelle, mitochondrion, for conversion into energy by oxidation. It has a structure similar to that of amino acids and is formed from L-lysine and L-methionine.
L-Carnosine is a dipeptide consisting of of ß-alanine linked at its carboxyl terminus to the amino group of L-histidine (ß-alanyl-L-histidine). It is synthesized by the enzyme carnosine synthetase, and broken down by carnosinase. It is widely distributed in tissues, and is present at particularly high concentrations in skeletal muscle and the olfactory lobe of the brain. Carnosine has a number of important properties, including antioxidant activity, ability to chelate divalent cations such as copper, neutralization of acids (such as lactic acid), and the inhibition of nonenzymic glycosylation of proteins. It is found in long-lived tissues in surprisingly high amounts (up to 20 mM in human muscle) and has been shown to delay aging in cultured cells. When added to cultures of human lung and foreskin fibroblasts, the dipeptide extended cell survival and increased maximal cell division potential while also inducing a more juvenile phenotype in senescent human and rodent cells. This suggests that other properties of the dipeptide are involved. There are suggestions that the concentration of tissue-associated L-carnosine declines with age. L-Carnosine and related dipeptides have been shown to prevent peroxidation of model membrane systems, suggesting that they represent water-soluble counterparts to lipid-soluble antioxidants such as a-tocopherol in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage. Other roles ascribed to this dipeptide include acting as a neurotransmitter in the modulation of enzyme activities.
L-Carnosine significantly reduces the formation of 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OH dG) in cultured cells, thus demonstrating protection of DNA. The presumptive anti-senescent effect of L-carnosine may be related to this inhibition. L-Carnosine also inhibits protein carbonyl formation. A common molecular indication of cellular aging is the accumulation of aberrant proteins, especially polypeptides bearing carbonyl (CO) groups.
A well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80% of the proteins in cow's milk, but only 40% in human milk. Casein is an efficient nutrient, supplying not only essential amino acids, but also some carbohydrates and the inorganic elements calcium and phosphorus.
Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa)
This extract is a traditional medicine from the Amazon rainforest. Historically it is a vine whose bark is brewed into a tea for treating various inflammatory disorders. Cat’s claw balances immune function and is an excellent adaptogen.
Chamomile (flower - Matricaria chamomilla)
German chamomile is a sweet-scented, smooth, branched annual growing to 2 1/2 ft. in height. It is native to Europe and Western Asia, and has become widely naturalized in the U.S. Chamomiles have been used for centuries in teas as a mild, relaxing sleep aid, treatment for fevers, colds, stomach ailments, and as an anti-inflammatory, to name only a few therapeutic uses.
Chaste tree extract – Standardized to agnusides. (berry - Vitex agnus-castus)
Indigenous to the Mediterranean, chaste tree now grows throughout the world in subtropical climates. Chaste tree berry extract helps normalize hormones levels, which eases the effects of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and sweating.
Is derived from chitin, a polysaccharide found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans. Chitosan is produced by grinding shells from shellfish such as shrimp, lobster and crabs into a very fine powder. This powder is then deacetylated, or stripped of specific chemical groups that allow the compound to have polar binding sites and high absorbability. Chitosan is known for its ability to bind fats, oils and bile acids and increase excretion of these materials.
Two to three species of Aronia, deciduous shrubs commonly found in woodlands and swamps, are native to eastern
Europe and eastern North America. Chokeberries, the fruit produced by these shrubs, range in color from red to purple to
black, have an astringent flavor and are high in anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and vitamin C.
(See Vitamin D)
Chemically is trimethylethanolamine. Aids in the formation of a number of important substances in the body essential for nerve function and protection, muscle control, memory, and many other functions. Utilized for producing important constituents (phospholipids) involved in brain and heart functions and energy utilization. A building block for acetylcholine, a key brain chemical involved in memory, mental processes and nerve as well as muscle functions. Serves as a methyl donor in one carbon metabolism.
An essential trace element involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. It primarily increases the efficiency of insulin. Supplemental chromium administered to individuals with impaired glucose tolerance leads to improved blood glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. It appears to improve lean muscle mass in humans. Response to chromium is dependent upon the form and the amount of supplemental chromium. Human studies suggest that certain forms of chromium decrease insulin levels and improve glucose disposal in obese populations. In one study, a high chromium supplementation with exercise decreased total cholesterol in human volunteers.
Flavonoids comprise a large group of low molecular weight polyphenolic phytochemicals found in plants. They have been categorized into six families based on their chemical structures. These families are chalcones, flavones, flavonols, flavanones, anthocyanins and isoflavonoids. Flavonoids from citrus fruits include rutin, hesperidin, quercetin, and naringin. These flavonoid compounds have shown antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vitamin C sparing action, beneficial effects on blood flow and anti-allergenic interactions with immune cells.
An amino acid that is not normally present in protein. L-Citrulline is created in the body as an intermediate in the conversion of the amino acid L-ornithine to L-arginine in a metabolic pathway called the urea cycle. L-Citrulline was first isolated from watermelon. The term citrulline was coined from citrullus, the Latin name of the watermelon.
Cocoa is a fine-textured chocolate powder that is made from ground roasted cocoa beans with most of the fat removed.
Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10)
A quinone coenzyme with an isoprenoid tail. Also known as ubiquinone. Found virtually in all body cell membranes and energy compartments. The conversion of energy from carbohydrates and fats to ATP, the form of energy used by cells in the body, requires the presence of coenzyme Q. By functioning as an antioxidant, may protect tissue components by neutralizing free radicals and reactive oxygen species produced during the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates.
Coleus extract – Standardized to forskohlin. (root - Coleus forskohlii)
The active ingredient found in coleus extract is forskohlin. Forskohlin may help increase lean body mass and help reduce body fat during periods of exercise. This ingredient also helps support lipolysis. Lipolysis is breakdown of fats to be used as fuel in the body. Forskohlin stimulates and activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase resulting in production of cyclic AMP.
Copper is an essential mineral that is an integral part of numerous enzyme systems involved in health. Plays a role in iron metabolism, melanin synthesis, and central nervous system function, the synthesis and cross-linking of elastin and collagen, bone formation, and skeletal mineralization.
Cranberry juice powder (fruit – Vaccinium macrocarpon)
Traditionally used to ease effects of and prevent urinary tract infections. Contains proanthocyanidins that interfere with the bacterial adherence to the urinary tract that causes urinary tract infections. Other properties included acting as a mild diuretic and urinary deodorizer.
Crataegus oxyacantha (leaf and fruit)
Also known as Hawthorn, Crataegus is a thorny shrub or small tree which is a member of the Rosaceae family, and is native
to temperate areas of North America, Europe and Asia. The shrub produces small red berries and has been used in traditional herbal
and Chinese medicine. The primary groups of bioactive constituents of this shrub are flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins.
A nitrogenous organic acid synthesized from the amino acids glycine, L-arginine, and L-methionine that is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates mainly in the form of phosphocreatine and which supplies energy for muscle contraction. Plays a very important part in cell energy production and increases both total and fat-free body mass.
(See Vitamin B-12)