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GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
A neurotransmitter within the central nervous system that supports mental energy and focus.
A natural component of rice bran, corn, and barley oils. It is a naturally occurring mixture of plant chemicals called sterols and ferulic acid esters. Some evidence suggests that gamma oryzanol increases testosterone levels, stimulates the release of endorphins (pain-relieving substances made in the body), and promotes the growth of lean muscle tissue.
Garcinia extract – Standardized to hydroxycitric acid. (fruit - Garcinia cambogia)
Its active ingredient, (-)-hydroxycitrate (HCA), is an inhibitor of ATP-citrate-lyase, a cytosolic (extramitochondrial) enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloactetate and acetyl-CoA. HCA is believed to reduce the pool of acetyl CoA, limiting the bioavailability of 2-carbon groups required for the synthesis of lipids and cholesterol. In view of this, HCA might promote weight maintenance by inhibiting or limiting the capacity for de novo lipogenesis. Administration of HCA reduces energy intake in humans in short-term studies. Some human studies have claimed that extracts containing HCA increase fat oxidation and decrease appetite in short-term studies. Other studies have indicated that the ingestion of a Garcinia cambogia, HCA containing extract and a form of chromium helps weight management in human subjects.
Garlic powder, odorless (bulb - Allium sativum)
Garlic has been used as a medicine and health-promoter for 5,000 years. It was widely used in ancient Assyria, Egypt, India, Greece and China. The chemistry of garlic is extremely complex, but research indicates that it is the unusual organosulfur compounds relatively unique to garlic that promote a broad range of lipid lowering, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects.
GenoPause™ herbal blend
Is a unique, clinically studied blend of four non-estrogenic herbal extracts, Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera and Commiphora mukul.
- Tinospora cordifolia, also called Guduchi, is a common deciduous climbing perennial shrub native to tropical India, Burma and Ceylon. Extracts of the stem of this herb yield diterpenoids and glycosides. Guduchi has long been used in Ayurvedic medicine and is thought to exert anti-tumor, analgesic, antipyretic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and adaptogenic effects.
- Asparagus racemosus, also known as Shatavari, is a creeping plant common throughout tropical and subtropical India, Ceylon, Sri Lanka, parts of Australia, tropical Africa, and up to 4,000 feet altitude in the Himalayas. An extract of the root yields saponins and asparagosides. It has had wide use in Ayurvedic medicine as an adaptogen and as a female tonic for overall health and vitality. It is reported to have antitumor, antimutagenic, antioxidant and antibacterial effects.
- Withania somnifera, also called Ashwaganda, is a tall evergreen shrub that grows prolifically in drier parts of India, Nepal, Pakistan, Ceylon, Sri Lanka, Iraq and Bangladesh, and is commercially cultivated in the Madhya Pradesh province of India. Root and leaf extracts are reported to have antibacterial, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and antioxidant effects. It is also valued as an adaptogen. Ashwaganda is a source of alkaloids, withanolides, glycosides and a falconoid.
- Commiphora mukul, also called Guggul, is a flowering shrub or small tree native to northern India, but is also found from northern Africa to central Asia. An extract known as gugulipid, from the resin of the tree, contains diterpenoids and sesamin among other compounds and has been used for cardiovascular health in Ayurvedic medicine in India for approximately 3,000 years. Guggul has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory effects as well as hypolipidemic, antioxidant and some anti-arthritic effects.
Ginkgo biloba extract – Standardized to gingo flavoneglycosides and terpene lactones. (leaf - Ginkgo biloba)
The ginkgo tree is the world’s oldest living species of tree. Individual trees can grow for as long as 1,000 years in the southern and eastern United States, southern France, China and Korea. The leaf is used for extracts standardized to 25% ginkgo flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones. Ginkgo leaf extract has been used in Chinese Traditional Medicine for 5,000 years. Ginkgo extract has been shown to have a whole host of benefits, but perhaps the two most notable are its antioxidant activity and its ability to increased blood flow to the brain. Acute administration of extracts improved performance in tests of attention and memory. Some studies have suggested positive effects of the extract, EGb 761, on the subjective emotional well-being of healthy elderly persons.
Glucosamine is a form of amino sugar that plays a role in cartilage formation and repair. It is an essential building block used as an intermediate substrate (proteoglycans) in the production of cartilage. In addition to serving as a building block for the synthesis of proteoglycans, the presence of glucosamine acts as a stimulus to the cells that produce proteoglycans.
One of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. Glycine is structurally the simplest of the a-amino acids, having merely a hydrogen atom for a side chain, and is thus very unreactive when incorporated into proteins. Glycine participates in several important reactions, including the biosynthesis of heme, an important constituent of hemoglobin, and the biosynthesis of L-serine (another amino acid), purines (constituents of genetic material), and glutathione (a coenzyme and antioxidant).
A clear, sweet syrupy liquid extracted from animal fats and vegetable oils. It is used in small amounts in some cake, bar, pastry, and icing mixtures to keep these products moist and to extend their shelf life.
Ginger – Standardized to gingerols. (root - Zingiber officinale)
A large tuberous perennial plant native to southern Asia, now cultivated extensively in almost all tropical and subtropical countries, especially China, India, Nigeria, Australia, Jamaica, and Haiti. Ginger has been used as a medicine since ancient times and is official in the national pharmacopoeias of Austria, China, Egypt, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, and Switzerland. Modern human studies have investigated ginger as an anti-emetic, anti-nausea treatment, a prophylactic against motion sickness and/or seasickness and for its effect on human platelet function. Studies also show it supports digestion and acid production necessary for calcium absorption.
The most abundant amino acid in plasma. It helps enhance immune function, is important in the preservation of muscle mass, and is a neuroactive precursor needed for optimal mental functioning. It may also help reduce cravings for sweets. It is an important fuel source for muscle and rapidly dividing cells such as the cells of the immune and gastrointestinal systems. L-glutamine is important in the synthesis of glutathione, and the amino acids, L-citrulline and L-arginine.
Glucomannan (tuber – Amorphophallus konjac)
The Western name for vegetable fibers derived from an Asiatic plant family known as Konjac. Glucomannan soluble non-absorbable dietary fiber swells in the stomach to help create a feeling of fullness. When we feel full, appetite typically decreases. Flour made from the Konjac root and the root itself is used in a variety of foods in Asia. Chemically it is a polysaccharide composed of partially acetylated D-glucose and D-mannose sugars.
Golden root – Standardized to glycosides. (root - Rhodiola rosea)
Rhodiola is a perennial plant with a thick rhizome, fragrant when cut, that grows primarily in dry sandy ground at high altitudes in arctic areas of mountainous regions in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. For centuries, rhodiola has been used in the traditional medicine of Russia, Scandinavia, and other countries. Rhodiola has been extensively studied as an adaptogen with various health-promoting effects, including increasing a body’s resistance to stress, enhancing immunity, facilitating oxygen transport, increasing capacity for exertion and for serving as an antioxidant. (See Adaptogens)
Goldenseal – Standardized to total alkaloids. (root - Hydrastis Canadensis)
One of the most widely sold American medicinal plants in North American herb markets. Widely thought to have the potential for supporting the body’s respiratory defense systems in conjunction with common cold, upper respiratory tract infections, allergic rhinitis and nasal congestion. The active constituents are the alkaloids berberine, hydrastine, canadine and canadaline.
Gotu kola – Standardized to triterpenoids. (leaf/stem/flower - Centella asiatica)
A slender, creeping plant that grows commonly in swampy areas of India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, South Africa and the tropics. Studies indicate that it exhibits properties of immune system support, anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidant activity as well as providing support for production of collagen and cartilage. Gotu kola is traditionally employed as a brain tonic for promoting memory, cognitive function, and mental well-being. Studies have demonstrated that the extract is helpful in relieving anxiety, promoting relaxation and a positive mood and exhibiting positive results on learning and memory.
Graminex™ flower pollen extract – Standardized to water and lipid portions. (pollen - Secale cereale, Zea mays, Phleum pratence)
An extract prepared from the pollen of rye grass, maize and timothy grass. It comprises a water-soluble and a lipid-soluble fraction. The latter fraction contains phytosterols. In vitro studies suggest that pollen extracts may have anti-androgenic effects, may inhibit 5α-reductase activity, relax urethral smooth muscle tone and increase bladder muscle contraction, act on the alpha-adrenergic receptors and relax the internal and external sphincter muscles, and inhibit the production of cytokines. Clinical studies suggest that the extracts improve urinary health.
Grape extract – Standardized to phenols (seed/skin - Vitis vinifera) and Grape seed extract
The extract contains polyphenols, which consist of (+)-catechin monomers, procyanidin oligomers and polymers, and is particularly rich in proanthocyanidins. These are short chains of catechins or flavanols, which exert profound effects of gene expression and are powerful antioxidants. The proanthocyanidins and associated flavanols are shown to induce endothelium dependent vasodilation and displays heart protective activity in experimental animals. There are numerous research reports documenting benefits in various states of inflammation.
Guarana extract – Standardized to caffeine. (seed – Paullinia cupana)
The extract is standardized for caffeine. Paullinia cupana is a berry, which grows in Venezuela and Brazil. Guarana is used in South America to prepare an energy-stimulating beverage similar to coffee or tea. Caffeine is the primary ingredient in guarana responsible for energy stimulation. Caffeine is a trimethylxanthine alkaloid derived primarily from coffee, tea and kola nut.
Caffeine modulates adenosine receptors and increases the turnover of several monoamine neurotransmitters in body cells, including serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline, vital for brain function. In addition, this purine derivative also augments CNS activity, lipolysis and respiration. Caffeine stimulates thermogenesis and increases energy expenditure dose dependently in human subjects. Single-dose oral administration of caffeine increases the resting metabolic rate of both lean and post-obese human volunteers, and improves diet-induced thermogenesis observed in the post-obese subjects. Caffeine at commonly consumed doses can have a significant influence on energy balance and may promote thermogenesis. Studies show that caffeine stimulates catecholamine release in vivo. Catecholamines activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which trigger increased rate of fat mobilization from body stores and hydrolysis to fatty acids (lipolysis), and enhanced resting metabolic rate (thermogenesis). Caffeine inhibits phosphodiesterase activity in vitro, an action with implications for raising the levels of cyclic AMP in body cells.
A soluble fiber extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, where it acts as a food and water store. Guar gum is a natural high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of galactan and mannan units. Polysaccharides are complex sugar molecules with nine or more simple sugars (monosaccharides) linked together. Several studies have found significant decreases in cholesterol levels after administration of guar gum in humans. These decreases are thought to be a function of the high soluble fiber content of guar. It is used as a binding, thickening, suspending and stabilizing agent in foods, beverages, lotions and creams.
Gymnema extract – Standardized to gymnemic acids. (leaf – Gymnema sylvestre)
A woody climbing plant that grows in the tropical forests of central and southern India. An extract of this plant appears to aid in promoting weight management by its ability to reduce the cravings for sweets and to control blood sugar levels. A particular study showed that a peptide isolated from Gymnema sylvestre, gurmarin, was able to block the sweet taste of glucose and sucrose in animal models. Gurmarin temporarily binds to the sweet and bitter taste receptors on the tongue, thereby blocking the taste sensation and reducing sweet cravings. Some studies reported that the ingestion of an extract of Gymnema sylvestre resulted a significant lowering of cholesterol in hypertensive rats fed a high sucrose diet. Gymnema is a source of gymnemic acid, a mixture of triterpene glycosides known to inhibit the intestinal absorption of glucose. Gymnemic acid also has an inhibitory effect on the intestinal absorption of oleic acid.
Hawthorn extract – Standardized to vitexin-rhamnoside (leaf/flower - Crataegus laevigata)
A common, thorny shrub that grows on hillsides and in sunny wooded areas of North America, Europe, western Asia, and North Africa. The leaves, flowers and berries of hawthorn contain bioflavonoids such as oligomeric procyanidins, vitexin, quercetin and hyperoside that are thought to be responsible for the herbs positive health benefits. Hawthorn is known for providing numerous cardiac benefits including improved coronary blood flow, blood flow in the extremities and supporting cardiac muscle. It may also have a positive effect in helping maintain blood pressure already in the normal range.
Hibiscus extract (flower – Hibiscus sabdariffa)
An extract of the hibiscus flower that contains inhibitors of alpha-amylase, an enzyme that is responsible for the breakdown of starch. This extract may also help produce a reduction in blood pressure.
High fructose corn syrup
A portion of the glucose in ordinary corn syrup is converted to fructose through the incubation with the enzyme glucose isomerase. This process, invented by Japanese researchers in the 1970s, increases the fructose content of corn syrup to 42%. Because fructose is a much sweeter monosaccharide than glucose, the sweetness of the syrup increases relative to corn syrup.
Honey is a sweet, viscid fluid produced by honeybees from the nectar of flowers. The nectar is taken from the flower by the worker bee and is carried in the honey sac back to the hive. It is transformed into honey by enzymes produced in the honey sac, which convert the natural sucrose (a complex sugar) in the nectar into fructose and glucose (simple sugars). From earliest times until cane sugar became commercially important, honey was a major sweetening agent. Honey is easily absorbed and utilized by the body. It contains about 70% to 80% sugar; the rest is water, minerals and traces of protein, acids, and other substances.
Hops (flower - Humulus lupulus)
A perennial herbaceous vine native to Europe and western Asia that is now cultivated in North and South America, Africa, Asia and Australia. Although portions of this plant have been used in making beverages for centuries, hops also has a long history of folk medicine applications such as calming and sleep promoting activity. Various flavonoids are believed to be responsible for the beneficial effects.
A metabolite of the essential amino acid L-leucine (one of the essential branched-chain amino acids). Small amounts of HMB are found in a variety of plant and animal sources, which include alfalfa and catfish. As with other amino acid-related substances, HMB appears to play a role in the synthesis of protein—including the protein that builds new muscle tissue.
It is hypothesized that HMB supplements may signal the body to slow down destruction of muscle tissue. Although the evidence is limited, HMB may enhance strength and muscle mass in response to weight training and may help prevent muscle damage during prolonged exercise.
An intermediate formed from the essential aromatic amino acid, L-tryptophan. The production of 5-hydroxytryptophan is the first step in the synthesis of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), which functions primarily as a neurotransmitter, and melatonin, the principal hormone secreted by the pineal gland. These substances are believed to have effects on mood and performance. 5-Hydroxytryptophan gives rise to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the tissues by a decarboxylase enzyme.
ID-alG is an extract of brown seaweed harvested off the coast of Brittany which contains naturally concentrated minerals and trace elements. The extract is also rich in marine polyphenols, and antioxidants. Studies show ID-alG inhibits the digestive enzymes, lipase and amylase. By decreasing the body’s fat and carbohydrate assimilation, ID-alG may help control caloric intake and reduce fat storage.
A nucleoside involved in the formation of purines and a compound with possible roles in energy metabolism. Inosine supports regeneration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle activity is fueled in part by ATP. When the body’s reserve of ATP is depleted, it loses energy and strength. Inosine appears to work by making ATP last longer. Inosine provides a safe and effective way to enable the body to utilize oxygen more efficiently. The result is greater strength, energy and stamina and simultaneous promotion of lean body weight.
A naturally-occurring nutrient which is a precursor of phospholipids. It is synthesized in the body from glucose and is metabolized to phosphatidylinositol. Inositol helps establish healthy cell membranes and maintain proper electrical energy and nutrient transfer across the cell membrane. Inositol is also involved in the conversion of fat into other useful products.
Inulin is a natural storage carbohydrate found in numerous edible plant species including chicory, artichoke, leek, onion, asparagus, wheat, barley, rye, garlic, and bananas. It has a mildly sweet taste and filling in a manner similar to starches but is not absorbed by the body so it does not have an effect on blood sugar levels. It resists digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and is fermented by microflora, primarily lactic acid bacteria, in the large intestine. For that reason, it provides the same positive effects of soluble fiber in the diet.
A trace element associated primarily with the thyroid gland where it participates in the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are involved in regulating, growth, development, and metabolism.
A mineral that plays an important role in immune function, cognitive development, temperature regulation and energy metabolism; a component of various proteins which are involved in the transport and metabolism of oxygen; plays a role in alcohol metabolism, drug detoxification and carcinogen excretion; involved in the breakdown of toxic oxygen species; functions as a cofactor for some enzymes including those involved in the synthesis of collagen and various neurotransmitters including dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and serotonin.