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Kola nut extract – Standardized to caffeine. (fruit - Cola acuminata)
Kola (Cola) is cultivated in Western Africa, West Indies and Brazil. Caffeine is the most notable active ingredient in kola nut extract. (See Caffeine for more information.)
Lemon Balm Extract (Melissa officinalis)
Lemon Balm is a member of the mint family, is native to Southern Europe and middle Asia, particularly in mountainous areas of Turkey. Historically lemon balm was used for insomnia, stress, anxiety and for its antiviral and relaxation effects. Active compounds include monoterpenoid aldehydes, flavonoids, polyphenols and monoterpene glycosides.
LeptiCore is a nutraceutical blend of plant polysaccharides, esterified fatty acids, pomegranate extract, beta-carotene
and blue-green algae. This proprietary blend helps protect against oxidative stress, helps support healthy
cardiovascular function and promotes healthy weight management and metabolic wellness. (LeptiCore® is a
trademark of Gateway Health Alliance Inc., and is protected under US Patent 6,899,892 and patents pending.)
Leuzea extract – Standardized to piperidine. (root – Rhaponticum carthamoides)
Rhaponticum carthamoides is an herbaceous perennial growing between 4,500 -6,000 feet above sea level. The plant can be found growing wild as well as cultivated in Southern Siberia, Kazakhstan, and Russia and Eastern Europe. Rhaponticum root contains antioxidant catechins, flavonols, flavonoids and chlorogenic acid. Rhaponticum is an adaptogenic plant that may exert a beneficial effect on memory and learning, as well as increase working capacity of tired skeletal muscles.
An important cellular component that is required for critical energy production steps taking place inside cells. The metabolic antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (LA), is a disulfide compound found naturally in plants and animals. It is the only antioxidant that is water and fat-soluble. It is easily transported across cell membranes. The disulfide form of LA is reduced in mitochondria by specific dehydrogenases and its supplementation thus targets an antioxidant to the mitochondria, the major site of free radical production. Supplementation with LA may also boost mitochondrial function because it is a co-factor for pyruvate and a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and as such, may be useful in increasing overall mitochondrial metabolism. LA crosses the blood–brain barrier in animals and is readily incorporated into the cells. It is reduced to a potent antioxidant, dihydrolipoic acid, which can reduce oxidized vitamin C and glutathione, which may in turn recycle vitamin E. As a form of lipoyllysine, LA is found in vegetables (spinach, broccoli and tomatoes) and in animal tissues (kidney, heart and liver). LA can decrease oxidative damage in the brains of older rats and partly restore age-related declines in nervous functions. LA plays a fundamental role in mitochondrial metabolism. It is also a substrate for the NADPH dependent enzyme, glutathione reductase. The reduced form of LA reacts with oxidants such as superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen. Animal studies show that the administration of lipoic acid is beneficial for nerve function, and insulin response, as well as eye and heart health.
Licorice extract – Standardized to glycyrrhizic acid. (root – Glycyrrhiza glabra)
An herbal extract containing numerous active constituents attributed with anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, anti-hepatotoxic, expectorant, anti-tussive and anti-allergic activities. The anti-allergic activity is ascribed mainly to the action of the aglycone, beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a triterpene, has demonstrated anti-viral activity by inhibiting the growth and cytopathology of unrelated DNA and RNA viruses in vitro. GA has also shown anti-inflammatory activity similar to hydrocortisone and has reduced inflammatory levels of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), indicative of liver damage, and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), representative of cellular damage.
Lutein and zeaxanthin
Carotenoids found in green vegetables such as spinach, kale and broccoli. In the eye, lutein is found within the macula of the retina. The body does not make lutein or zeaxanthin and they must be obtained by food sources or through supplementation. Lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with normal functioning of the retina, which is responsible for sharp and detailed vision. These carotenoids work in the eye by filtering out damaging ultraviolet blue light and working as antioxidants against free radicals in the eye.
Lycopene is a red carotenoid pigment and is one of the most potent antioxidants among dietary carotenoids. Supplementation of lycopene helps maintain heart, prostate, immune and cellular health. Studies indicate that it also diminishes the level of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Tomatoes and tomato products are the richest dietary sources of lycopene. Other sources include pink grapefruit, watermelon, rosehip, pink guava, papaya and apricots.
An essential amino acid necessary for producing carnitine, an antioxidant, necessary for transporting long chain fatty acids into the mitochondrion for energy production and utilization. L-Lysine is necessary for protein and collagen synthesis.