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A flavonoid found almost ubiquitously in food plants. It possesses intrinsic features to function as a natural antioxidant. It exhibits cellular properties that may be involved in interactions with immune cells and support of the immune system.
Red clover – Standardized to isoflavones. (flower/leaf - Trifolium pratense)
An herb containing a class of phytochemicals known as isoflavones. The principal isoflavones found in red clover are biochanin A and formononetin which are metabolized to the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, respectively, and are thought to demonstrate weak estrogenic activity.
Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum)
Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) is an edible mushroom. Scientific investigations have repeatedly confirmed this mushroom’s beneficial effects on health in general. Active components in Reishi selectively stimulate the production of cytokines involved in the activation of immune cells and immune responses.
A phytoalexin polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries, and peanuts. It is a potent antioxidant that modulates cell signaling and exhibits properties beneficial for neurological, hepatic, and cardiovascular systems. It also modifies eicosanoid synthesis, inhibits activated immune cells, and inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) via its inhibitory effects on nuclear factor B (NF-kB) or the activator protein-1 (AP-1). Resveratrol is reported to slow aging in simple eukaryotes and has been suggested as a potential calorie restriction mimetic. Resveratrol mimics the beneficial effects of caloric restriction and extends longevity in yeast, nematodes, and flies. Resveratrol has been reported to be a sirtuin agonist, and this property has been proposed to account for its anti-aging effects.
Trans-Resveratrol - Polygonum cuspidatum root (also known as Japanese knotweed) is the trans- isomer of resveratrol. Resveratrol appears to be well-absorbed by humans, but its bioavailability is low because it is rapidly metabolized and eliminated. Of the two resveratrol isomers, cis- and trans, the trans- configuration is the more biologically active isomer.
Riboflavin, Vitamin B-2
Is an important component in coenzymes participating in many enzyme reactions; important for the metabolism of fat and carbohydrate; helps in red blood cell formation; promotes the release of energy from foods; essential in nervous system function
D-Ribose (related compound deoxyribose)
D-ribose is classified as a group of monosaccharides, aldoses, pentoses and reducing sugars that are building blocks of nucleic acid RNA (Ribose). It allows cells to greatly increase adenine nucleotide salvage and de novo synthesis while preserving nucleotide pools and increasing concentrations of ADP and ATP. D-Ribose is rapidly metabolized and converted into body glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway. D-ribose aids in restoring energy and supports cardiovascular health.
A flour made from ground rice (Oryza sativa), containing little to no fat, no cholesterol, and minimal sodium. Rice contains all essential amino acids, and is a good source of B-complex vitamins and essential minerals.
A thin brown outer layer milled from rice (Oryza sativa), when white rice is made, which serves as a source of fiber. Research has shown positive effects of rice bran on laxation, cholesterol reduction, and renal calcium reduction. Research also indicates that rice bran and rice bran oil reduce low-density lipoproteins (LDL), often referred to as the "bad cholesterol."
Rice syrup is an extremely versatile and relatively healthy sweetener which is derived by culturing rice with enzymes to break down the starches, then straining off the liquid and cooking it until the desired consistency is reached. The final product is roughly 50% soluble complex carbohydrates, 45% maltose, and 3% glucose. The glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream immediately, the maltose takes up to one and a half hours to be digested, and the complex carbohydrates take from two to three hours to be digested and absorbed, providing a steady supply of energy.
The familiar form of the cereal oats of the genus Avena of the family Gramineae (grass family) sold at the market as oatmeal. Rolled oats are steamed and pressed flat with steel rollers to shorten cooking time. They are a prime source of the complex carbohydrates that help to sustain energy. They contain about 50% more protein than bulgur and twice as much as brown rice. They contain selenium, thiamine, phosphorus, and manganese, as well as copper, folic acid, vitamin E and zinc. Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat and is particularly high in soluble fiber.
Sage extract - Standardized to polyphenols, (leaf - Salvia officinalis)
Sage is a widely used herb and its extracts contain a variety of polyphenols, some of which are also found in tea. The polyphenols in combination with caffeine promote energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Sage constituents possess immunomodulatory effects and its polyphenols exhibit antioxidant effects. The components of sage extracts affect brain cell receptors, which has implications for modulating appetite and food intake.
Sage possesses liver protective effects and stimulates the digestive tract as well as containing substances with cardioprotective properties. Sage extract has been used as a stimulant and diuretic. Components of sage extracts reduce body weight gain and the accumulation of epididymal fat weight. They suppress pancreatic lipase activity and fat (triglyceride) accretion, which aid in body weight reduction. They also reduce NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB), a transcription factor involved in obesity. Sage also possesses anti-diabetic and insulin-like activities.
Sage has a long history of use as a memory-enhancing agent coupled with cholinergic properties and its extract is reputed to produce cognitive enhancement. Clinical studies show the efficacy of sage extract in improving cognitive function and performance, ascribed to its inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinestrase. Its effects in increasing acetylcholine levels in the brain might have implications for appetite and food intake modulation, since the interactions between acetylcholine and several other neurotransmitters ultimately determine and regulate food intake. Sage extracts influence GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain), receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites in these receptors, which modulate appetite and food intake. GABA plays an important role in controlling energy balance within the central nervous system.
Saw palmetto extract – Standardized to fatty acids. (berry - Serenoa repens)
An extract of the dried ripe fruit from the American dwarf palm tree, which is found in the coastal areas of Florida and southeastern United States. Fatty acid and sterol constituents of saw palmetto berries are believed to be the biologically active factors. Clinical studies suggest that the extracts improve functional urinary flow. Some of the suggested mechanisms of action include 5α-reductase inhibition, intraprostatic androgen receptor blockade, alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonism, interference with the action of prolactin, diminution of androgen-binding globulin, and modulation of prostate cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activities (arachidonic acid cascade). Alpha-adrenoceptor and calcium channel blocking activities are believed to reduce the smooth muscle contractions of the bladder sphincter.
Schisandra extract – Standardized to schisandrins. (fruit – Schisandra chinensis)
A member of the Magnoliaceae family, a woody climbing vine with numerous clusters of bright red berries. It is distributed throughout northern and northeast China and the adjacent regions of Russia and Korea. The major constituents in schisandra are lignans. Schisandra is an adaptogenic plant used for increasing resistance to stress, increasing energy levels, physical performance and endurance. It improves liver function and is also used as a liver protectant. Schisandra has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (See Adaptogen)
An essential mineral involved in factors mediating the formation of thyroid hormone. Selenium is also part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase that serves to protect proteins, cell membranes, lipids, and nucleic acids from oxidative stress in tissues and cells.
Senna extract – Standardized to sennosides. (leaf – Cassia angustifolia)
Contains the anthroquinones, sennosides A & B, that appear during the drying process of the extract. Sennosides cause contraction of the colon lining, providing a laxative effect. Senna should only be consumed occasionally, not on a daily basis.
Shave grass extract – Standardized to silica. (aerial – Equisetum arvense)
Also known as the horsetail plant, this member of the fern family grows in wet to moderately dry areas mostly in the Northern hemisphere. The high levels of silicon and other minerals found in this plant help support the use of calcium in the body and play a role in the production of skin and connective tissue.
Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes)
Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom rich in vitamins, fiber and amino acids and low in fat. This mushroom contains a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties. Polysaccharides enhance cell-mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro, and act as biological response modifiers. The polysaccharides are believed to induce gene expression of various immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors.
A trace mineral. In the body silicon is associated with growth and development of bone, connective tissue and cartilage. Silicon is required for synthesis of L-proline and L-hydroxyproline, which are a part of the primary structure of collagen. It is also needed for the production of glycosaminoglycans.
Skullcap extract – Standardized to baicalin. (root - Scutellaria baicalensis)
A traditional herb used extensively in China that contains a pharmacologically active ingredient, baicalein, in a sugar-bound form, baicalin. The components of this extract are believed to possess immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.
One of the most abundant minerals in the body. Sodium chloride or salt is important in many ways. It is an essential part of the diet of both humans and animals and is a part of most bodily fluids, such as blood, sweat, and tears. It aids digestion by providing chlorine for hydrochloric acid, a small but essential part of human digestive fluid. Sodium chloride is essential to life on Earth. Most biological tissues and body fluids contain a varying amount of salt. The concentration of sodium ions in the blood is directly related to the regulation of safe body-fluid levels. Propagation of nerve impulses by signal transduction is regulated by sodium ions.
Soybeans (Roasted) / Soy protein isolate
The soybean is an annual leguminous plant (Glycine max), widely cultivated for forage and soil improvement and for its nutritious seeds. Soybeans are used to produce a wide variety of products including tofu (soybean curd), soybean oil, soy flour, soymilk and soy sauce. The soybean provides what is considered a complete protein because it includes all nine essential amino acids. Soybeans are rich in many naturally occurring phytonutrients including isoflavones and saponins.
Lecithin plays a number of roles in heart health, including the lowering of total and LDL cholesterol levels. The choline delivered by lecithin can help reduce high homocysteine levels in the blood - which can be associated with artery damage, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease and bone fracture.
Sucralose is a potent non-caloric sweetener that is a heat stable derivative of sucrose. It is also known by the trade name Splenda. It is 500-700 times sweeter than sucrose and has been extensively researched to establish its safety profile. It was first approved for use in Canada (where it has sometimes been marketed as Splendar) in 1991. Subsequent approvals came in Australia in 1993, in New Zealand in 1996, in the United States in 1998, and in the European Union in 2004. The safety of sucralose has been confirmed by leading medical, scientific and regulatory authorities around the world including; the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Joint (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization) Expert Committee on Food Additives, European Commission's Scientific Committee on Food, Health Canada and Food Standards Australia/New Zealand. As of 2005, it has been approved in over 40 countries, including Canada, Brazil, China, and Japan.
A sweet crystalline or powdered substance, white when pure, most commonly consisting of sucrose obtained mainly from sugar cane and sugar beets and used in many foods, drinks, and medicines to improve their taste. Also called table sugar. In addition, sugar can be defined as any of a class of water-soluble crystalline carbohydrates, including glucose, fructose, maltose sucrose and lactose, having a characteristically sweet taste and classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides.
Sugar alcohols (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol)
are carbohydrates with a chemical structure that partially resembles sugar and partially resembles alcohol, but they do not contain ethanol as alcoholic beverages do. While they provide a sweetness like sucrose they are slowly and incompletely absorbed and metabolized by the body, and consequently contribute fewer calories. Some sugar alcohols used by AdvoCare include maltitol and lactitol.
Suma extract – Standardized to saponins. (root – Pfaffia paniculata)
Suma is a large ground vine with a deep root system that has a propensity to spread. It can be found in various tropical locations such as the Amazon Basin in Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Three principle active ingredients have been identified in Suma: pfaffic acid, phytosterols (mainly beta-ecdysone), and pfaffosides (saponins). Beta-ecdysone is a plant phytosteroid hormone found to enhance protein biosynthesis and other anabolic (rebuilding) activities in animals. In addition beta-Ecdysone has shown analgesic and anti-diabetic activities in human studies.
is a non-stimulant extract of the South Asian fruit, Garcinia cambogia. Super CitriMax contains a standardized amount of the active component, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), and has been clinically shown to inhibit the enzymes that convert carbohydrates into fat and promote an increase in energy stored as glycogen. Studies show it provides appetite suppression, maintains cholesterol levels and promotes an increase in brain serotonin levels. Super CitriMax is the only calcium and potassium HCA ingredient affirmed FDA Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS).
Super CitriMax® is property of InterHealth Nutraceuticals Incorporated.
See also Garcinia cambogia extract.
Sustamine is a dipeptide of the amino acids, L-alanine and L-glutamine. This dipeptide enhances electrolyte and water absorption resulting in higher serum bioavailability and absorption of L-glutamine, compared to L-glutamine alone. It plays an important role in enhancing the immune system, muscle protein synthesis and energy production through gluconeogenesis. (Sustamine™ is a registered trademark of Kyowa Hakko Bio Co., Ltd.)
is a non-roasted extract of select decaffeinated green coffee beans (fruit – Coffea canephora robusta P.), a variety which contains a high level and specific ratio of more than twelve cholorgenic acids, the components responsible for the bitterness of coffee. Chlorogenic acids in coffee, especially 5-caffeoylquinic acid mainly found in green coffee beans, inhibits glucose-6-phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase), a hepatic enzyme involved in the release of glucose from the liver into blood circulation, thereby helping regulate glucose metabolism and support the body’s breakdown of fat reserves for energy. The Coffea canephora robusta P. variety of coffee typically grows in Central and West Africa, South-East Asia and Brazil.
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