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Tapioca starch is an easily digested starchy polysaccharide extracted from the root of the cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant. Tapioca is often used in pudding and as a thickener/stabilizer in food products. It can withstand long cooking times without breaking down. Tapioca becomes clear and gel-like when cooked and dissolves completely when used as a thickener.
An amino acid found primarily in the brain and the eye. It may aid in stabilizing cells and tissues through its antioxidative properties, and in protecting the nervous system. It may a play a role in physiologic functions involved in detoxification in the cells of the body as well as helps maintain blood lipid levels and stabilizing blood platelets. It provides energy, and aids in mental focus.
Tea (leaf - Camellia sinensis)
There are three principal types of manufactured tea, namely black (fully fermented), green (unfermented), and oolong (partially fermented). The term "fermentation" refers to the oxidative transformations undergone by tea phenolics involving natural browning reactions induced by oxidizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidases) within the plant cell. The manufacture of black tea ensues oxidation of fresh tea leaf components, due to the activation of polyphenol oxidases, which oxidize susceptible tea leaf polyphenol moieties culminating in the formation of brown pigments, and this process develops the color and aroma of the liquid. The production of green tea comprises the rolling and steaming of tender tea leaves, a process that minimizes the activation of enzymes and consequently oxidation. Oolong tea is a partially fermented product having components common to both green and black teas. It contains both native and oxidized catechins, its composition reflecting an intermediate range between that of green and black teas.
- Black tea extract - Standardized for theaflavin, (leaf - Camellia sinensis): Black tea is a fully fermented preparation of tea leaves. During the manufacture of black tea, a major proportion of monomeric free catechins in the fresh green tea leaf undergoes oxidative changes culminating in the generation of a series of compounds, including bisflavanols, theaflavins, epitheaflavic acids, and thearubigins, which impart the characteristic taste and color properties of black tea. This extract is a source of theaflavins and other ingredients, which are oxidized catechins. The theaflavins exhibit a number of pharmacological actions in cells, which have implications for enhancing metabolic rate. Black tea also contains some native (unoxidized) catechins.
Black tea extracts exhibits anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects in animals. The oral administration of a black tea extract resulted in a decrease in body and liver weight gain and food intake in rats. The administration of a black tea extract as a drink attenuated plasma triacylglycerol levels and induced reduction in weight gain in sucrose fed rats. Pu-Erh black tea (products of Yunnan district, China) consumption caused a reduction in plasma triacylglycerol levels in rats ingesting this tea extract. This tea appears to stimulate lipolysis in the adipose tissue, and thus could have an effect in inducing weight loss. Black tea enhances vasodilation and blood flow in human subjects, an action with implications for lipolysis. Studies have documented that black tea ingestion reduces triacylglycerol in human subjects carrying specific alleles. Gallic acid present in black tea extract suppresses food intake in animals. Black tea components such as theaflavins, modulates AP1 (activator protein 1), a nuclear binding protein (transcription factor), an action relevant to weight loss. They also inhibit IkappaB kinase (IKK), an enzyme activity implicated in the promotion of obesity.
- Green tea extract - Standardized to polyphenols and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). (leaf - Camellia sinensis): Green tea is an herb that differs from black and oolong teas because it is not fermented. Steaming fresh leaves at high temperatures produces the extract. It is rich in polyphenols, flavanols and catechins, the most widely studied is EGCG. This extract is a source of one of the highest levels of organically bound fluorine, a key mineral for bone health. Green tea serves as an antioxidant by reducing oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. It also provides a source of energy. There is a vast array of studies documenting the effects of green tea extracts, especially EGCG and other catechins, on gene expression leading to a restoration and maintenance of health. Joint health, heart health, cognitive and mental functions and chemoprevention are some of the attributes of dietary supplementation with these catechins.
- Oolong tea extract - Standardized to polyphenols. (leaf - Camellia sinensis): The characteristic that separates oolong tea from green tea and black tea is that it is partially fermented. Green tea is unfermented and black tea is fully fermented. Because oolong tea is partially fermented it contains unique levels of tea flavanols commonly referred to as catechins. During the partial fermentation processes, small amounts of polyphenols are formed such as theaflavin. Oolong tea has both the active catechin components of unfermented green tea and the fermented black tea polyphenols.
Oolong tea is able to support energy levels, support lipolysis and provide antioxidant activity through its unique combination of catechins and polyphenols. Oolong tea increases energy expenditure and fat oxidation. It appears to suppress food intake and weight gain based on experimental animal studies.
A water extract of oolong tea prevented the obesity and fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet in mice. This extract of oolong tea, in concert with caffeine, accentuated norepinephrine-induced lipolysis in isolated fat cells. The consumption of oolong tea over a 6-week period resulted in significant weight loss in women, thus exemplifying the clinical efficacy of oolong tea. The consumption of oolong tea promoted energy expenditure and fat oxidation in human subjects. Tea polyphenols inhibit the activity of catechol-O-methyl transferase, which inactivates catecholamines.
- White tea extract - Standardized to polyphenols. (leaf - Camellia sinensis): White tea extract is derived from unfermented tea leaves and young and tender tea buds. It is a source of flavan compounds, which are known as tea catechins. The principal catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and other tea catechins are potent antioxidants and display immunomodulatory effects in experimental animals. The oral administration of tea catechins and caffeine to human subjects stimulated energy expenditure and fat oxidation, thus indicating the potential of tea components to influence body weight and body composition. Human studies report that ingestion of a mixture of tea catechins in the absence of caffeine promotes weight reduction. Tea polyphenols inhibit the activities of gastric and pancreatic lipases, an action with possible implications for attenuating fat accretion. Evidence indicates that EGCG is an immune enhancer. Tea components activate lymphocytes (T-cells) associated with immune function enhancement and stimulate their proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. Tea catechins induce apoptosis, modulate cell signaling and regulate cell cycle events. Tea polyphenols inhibit the activity of catechol-O-methyl transferase, which inactivates catecholamines.
It is the most prominent amino acid present in tea leaves. It is an amino acid unique to tea. L-Theanine is derived from the amino acid L-glutamic acid. It is believed to confer a relaxation effect on humans and has antioxidant activity. L-Theanine is a precursor of ethylamine, an antigen, considered to have a beneficial immune effect.
Thiamine, Vitamin B-1
Essential for converting carbohydrates from the diet to energy. Needed for normal functioning of the nervous system and muscles, including heart muscle.
Tulsi extract - Standardized for ursolic acid (leaf - Ocimum sanctum)
Tulsi is native to India, where it is grown as an aromatic perennial flowering shrub, and it has been used for thousands of years in treating a wide range of health-related conditions. Tulsi is also grown as an annual herb in temperate climates. The caramel of the leaves is spicy and complex, similar to clove, and after drying, the leaves are often made into a tea. Tulsi is an adaptogenic herb having properties in common with polyphenol containing plants such as ginseng and eleuthero. The results of some studies indicate that O. sanctum induces a state of non-specific increased resistance against a variety of stress-induced biological changes in animals. A limited number of studies have shown that the herb also has a normalizing influence on blood pressure and blood sugar imbalances. Eugenol is one of the active constituents present in O. sanctum and may be responsible for many of the reported beneficial effects.
Turmeric extract – Standardized to curcumin. (root - Curcuma longa)
A spice, which contains curcuminoids, a group of bioactive phenolic compounds. The major bioactive curcuminoid, curcumin, is a yellow pigment containing a diferulic acid (diferuloyl methane) derivative. Ferulic acid is ubiquitous in plants and arises from the metabolism of the aromatic amino acids, L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. Curcumin is a potent antioxidant. Evidence indicates that curcumin exhibits a variety of effects beneficial for health and for events that help in potentiating immune function. Curcumin is a modulator of the ubiquitous transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B which is involved in immune regulation.
A non-essential, sparing amino acid* found in dietary proteins. It is synthesized in the body from L-phenylalanine, and is believed to improve mental energy & focus by serving as a precursor for the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and thyroid hormones.
*Non-essential unless a person has PKU (phenylketonuria), then this amino acid becomes essential.
Valerian – Standardized to valerenic acids. (root - Valeriana officinalis)
A perennial herb native to North America, Asia and Europe that has been used traditionally to help produce a calming and relaxing (anxiolytic) effect. The chemical composition of valerian includes sesquiterpenes (including valeric acid), iridoids (valepotriates), alkaloids, furanofuran lignans, and free amino acids such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), L-tyrosine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine. Valepotriates are known to have sedative, hypnotic and spasmolytic effects. Studies suggest that valerian must be consumed repeatedly for one to two weeks before a benefit is noticed.
Vanadium (Vanadyl sulfate)
Vanadium is an ultra-trace mineral found in the human diet and the human body. It is essential for some animals and thought to be essential in humans. Deficiency symptoms in these animals include growth retardation, bone deformities, and infertility. Vanadium may play a role in building bones and teeth. It has strong glucose lowering (anti-hyperglycemic) effects, and is a common supplement used to enhance weight training.
It is commonly known as the anti-infective vitamin, because it is required for normal functioning of the immune system. It is required for the production of blood components (red blood cell production). Vitamin A is necessary for a broad range of bodily functions including production of visual pigments, and maintenance of health in many cells of the body.
Vitamin B-vitamin complex
Refers to the combination of water soluble (B) vitamins including thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and pantothenic acid. (See individual vitamins). The B vitamins as well as folic acid, in addition to providing a non-caffeinated source of energy, are also highly effective agents that provide positive support to the epigenome. Animal studies have indicated that diets supplemented with these nutrients can reverse the genetic disposition to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Agouti mouse model. Molecular tags on the agouti gene responsible for controlling satiety were corrected by these nutrients.
( See Thiamine)
( See Riboflavin)
( See Pantothenic acid)
Vitamin B-6, Pyridoxine HCL
This water-soluble vitamin is essential for protein metabolism, nervous system and immune functions. It is necessary for the synthesis of hormones and red blood cells. There are six active forms of vitamin B-6. The first step in coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis (the conversion of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid) requires vitamin B-6 in the form of pyridoxal-5'-phospate (PLP). Vitamin B-6 supplementation was found to be effective in lowering blood homocysteine levels after an oral dose of methionine (methionine load test) was given, suggesting that it may play a role in the metabolism of homocysteine. Managing the blood levels of homocysteine is important for maintaining cardiovascular health. PLP plays a vital role in the function of approximately 100 enzymes that catalyze essential biochemical reactions in the human body. PLP functions as a coenzyme for glycogen phosphorylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the release of glucose stored in the muscle as glycogen.
Vitamin B-12, Cyanocobalamin
Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for processing carbohydrates, proteins and fats and which is vital for blood (red blood cell) formation as well as a healthy nervous system. Vitamin B-12 cannot be absorbed or used by the body until it combines with a special protein produced in the stomach called intrinsic factor. As individuals age they are less able to produce intrinsic factor and consequently there is less vitamin B-12 available to participate in metabolic processes. Vitamin B-12 acts as a coenzyme in the synthesis and repair of DNA. It also works with folic acid in utilizing amino acids and plays a role in one carbon metabolism.
Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catecholamines play a role in mobilizing lipids for oxidation. In addition, vitamin C is required for the production of carnitine, which is essential for the transport of fat to the cellular organelle, mitochondrion, for conversion into energy. Vitamin C is required for the synthesis and activation of various cellular constituents, including enzymes involved in energy metabolism. It also plays a role in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids.
Vitamin C promotes healthy cell function. It is required for the synthesis of collagen, an important structural component of blood vessels, bone, tendons and ligaments. It is vital for the proper functioning of the immune system, especially for the activity of the white blood cells, which influence metabolism. It is required for synthesis and activation of some hormones. One of these hormones is the thyroid hormone, thyroxin, which regulates the body’s metabolic rate, and consequently body mass.
Vitamin D, Cholecalciferol
Several structurally related forms exist including cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). It is essential for effective and optimal calcium absorption from the intestine, the efficient utilization of calcium by the body, and maintaining calcium balance. It helps build and regulate bone mass and maintain bone health, and helps maintain blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Regulation of blood calcium levels is vital for bone growth, and maintenance of bone density. Vitamin D can be made in the skin on exposure to sunlight.
A family of eight naturally occurring compounds-four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) with widely varying degrees of biological activity. The most active form is the “d” isomer of alpha-tocopherol. Recent research shows that other forms, such as gamma-tocopherol may also be important to the body. It acts as a powerful antioxidant, particularly protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids within cell membrane phospholipids and in plasma lipoproteins from oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an essential nutrient for cell and tissue health, which may have a role in blood flow, immune function and blood cell functioning and in protecting against cellular stress. The succinate form of d-alpha tocopherol as well as mixed tocotrienols and gamma tocopherol are used in some AdvoCare products.
This essential vitamin exists in several structurally related forms including phytonadione, menaquinone and menadione. It is a cofactor that activates at least three proteins involved in bone mineralization, formation, repair and health. Vitamin K is also essential for synthesizing the liver protein that controls blood clotting. There are some indications that vitamin K may decrease the incidence or severity of osteoporosis and slow bone loss. In the intestines it also assists in converting glucose to glycogen, which can then be stored in the liver.