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White Willow extract – Standardized to salicin. (bark - Salix alba)
A deciduous shrub native to Britain, Central and Southern Europe, Asia and North America. Willow bark was used in the Middle Ages to relieve fevers and pain. The glycosidic constituent salicylic acid is related to acetylsalicylic acid and is similar in biological activities, exerting analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects.
Wild yam extract – Standardized to diosgenin. (root - Dioscorea villosa)
A twining vine native to the central southeastern US and found less frequently in the Appalachian region. Wild yams are a rich source of saponins including diosgenin that have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects and which may reduce exercise-induced fatigue. They may also exhibit weak hormonal activity.
Xanthan gum (gum – Xanthomonas campestris)
A high molecular weight polysaccharide possessing a high viscosity at low concentrations with very low caloric value and excellent binding properties. Exhibits laxative and cholesterol and glucose lowering properties. It is widely used in foods as a thickening, suspending and emulsifying agent.
An essential mineral that serves as a micronutrient thought to be essential in maintaining the integrity of the immune system. It plays a role in immune cell functions and immune responses and confers immunocompetence. Zinc is required for the activity of the thymic hormone, thymulin, produced by the thymus gland, involved in immune function. It is found in high concentrations within the eye, especially in the retina. Zinc deficiency has been shown to have negative effects in vision. Zinc supplementation helps support healthy eye function, acting as an indirect antioxidant in the retina. May improve glucose tolerance by increasing insulin like growth factor.