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Adaptogens

Plant-based materials, which are consumed as part of a normal diet, support an organism's abilities to resist stressors of differing origin. Adaptogens are believed to reinforce (increase) the non-specific power of resistance of the body against physical, chemical or biological noxious agents. By definition, they have a normalizing influence independent of physical conditions of the organism, must be innocuous, and must not influence normal body functions excessively.

Alpha-glycerolphosphoryl choline (alpha-GPC)

Alpha-glycerolphosphoryl choline (alpha-GPC) is a choline donor. Choline is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Clinical studies indicate that alpha-GPC in a diet can assist normal systems protecting against memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. Alpha-GPC has also been shown to augment mind-to muscle neural communication, helping to optimize muscular power output, sharpen agility and reaction times, and delay mental fatigue. Studies demonstrate improvement in normal release of growth hormone following exercise in association with alpha-GPC supplementation.

Alpha-ketoglutarate

A dicarboxylic acid component involved in energy production and glucose formation via the citric acid cycle as well as oxidation and synthesis of the amino acids L-glutamine, L-glutamate, L-arginine and L-proline.

Alpha-Lipoic acid

An important cellular component that is required for critical energy production steps taking place inside cells. The metabolic antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (LA), is a disulfide compound found naturally in plants and animals. It is the only antioxidant that is water and fat-soluble. It is easily transported across cell membranes. The disulfide form of LA is reduced in mitochondria by specific dehydrogenases and its supplementation thus targets an antioxidant to the mitochondria, the major site of free radical production. Supplementation with LA may also boost mitochondrial function because it is a co-factor for pyruvate and a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and as such, may be useful in increasing overall mitochondrial metabolism. 

Amla

Amla - Emblica officinalis is a shrub that sometimes grows into a deciduous tree with feathery leaves and green fleshy fruit, indigenous and cultivated in the forests and seacoasts of India and Kashmir. The fruit, which is also called Indian gooseberry, has been used as a food and in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. Amla fruit is rich in antioxidants including vitamin C and is a potent scavenger of free radicals. .

Apple extract – Standardized to phloridizin. (fruit – Malus domestica)

Contains alpha-D-glucosidase inhibitors that participate in a reduction in disaccharide hydrolysis, thereby reducing the amount of free monosaccharides available for absorption in the intestine. Phloridzin, an alpha-D-glucosidase inhibitor, also acts directly on free glucose absorption in the jejunum, helping in the normal metabolic management of postprandial serum glucose.

Ashwagandha extract (root - Withania somnifera) – Standardized to withanolides

A low-lying perennial shrub found growing in Africa, the Mediterranean and India. Ashwagandha has been widely used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medical for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions and to facilitate overall health and longevity. The extract contains withanolides, chlorogenic acid, seopoletin and beta sitosterol.

Astaxanthin

A carotenoid found in the microaglae Haematococcus pluvialis. Astaxanthin consumed by salmon, shrimp and lobster gives a pink and red color to their tissues. It is a powerful lipid-soluble antioxidant and with a unique role in protecting cell membranes due to its chemical structure and ability to span the double layer cell membrane. Astaxanthin helps protect the cell from the inside out by acting as a bridge for transporting free radicals to other antioxidants.

Astragalus extract (root – Astragalus membranaceus)

The flowering plant genus Astragalus L. contains upwards of 2500 mostly perennial species, is found growing on a global scale, and is distributed primarily around the northern hemisphere and South America. Astragalus is an important herb containing bioactive constituents such as astragalosides, beta-sitosterol and isoflavones. The roots of this herb have been traditionally used to help strengthen the immune system.

Bacopa extract (leaf/stem - Bacopa monniera)– Standardized to bacosides

Bacopa is also known as brahmi. It is a well-known herb traditionally employed in the Ayurvedic system, used for supporting memory and brain function. The extract has antioxidant properties and can inhibit lipid peroxidation as well as help improve brain and nervous system function. The active constituents of Bacopa monniera, called bacosides, support mental retention capacity.

Beet powder (root – Beta vulgaris)

The familiar plant Beta vulgaris is known as sugar beets and it is commonly used as food. It is also commonly used as a red colorant in various products, and traditionally consumed in a normal diet to support liver health and facilitate management of nitic oxide production.

Beta-carotene

A powerful carotenoid antioxidant that acts through direct quenching or modification of oxidative free radical reactions. It is a precursor of vitamin A. Vitamin A is an essential part of a normal daily diet.

Beta-glucan

Soluble fiber known as beta-D-glucan. These compounds are usually referred to as beta-glucans, and they comprise a class of non-digestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in such sources as oats, barley, yeast, bacteria, algae and mushrooms. Oat beta-glucan is a soluble fiber located mainly in cell walls that is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the sugar D-glucose. Studies have shown that a healthy diet that includes beta-glucan can aid in maintaining normal levels of blood cholesterol and glucose.

The exact mechanism of beta-glucan's possible hypocholesterolemic effect is not clear. It appears to promote increased excretion of bile acids, which could help explain its possible cholesterol moderating activity. Beta-glucan may also promote cholesterol clearance from the plasma via reverse cholesterol transport.

The mechanism of the glucose-regulatory activity of beta-glucan is also not well understood. Beta-glucan may delay gastric emptying time and consequently affect the rate of uptake of D-glucose from the small intestine. The high viscosity of beta-glucan may delay absorption of glucose. Some studies have indicated that beta-glucan may have immunomodulatory activity.

Betaine

Also known as trimethylglycine. This ingredient plays a role in metabolic processes through donation of a methyl group (one carbon metabolism) in the conversion of homocysteine to the amino acid L-methionine.

Beta-phenyl-Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (phenibut)

Beta-phenyl-Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (phenibut) is a phenyl derivative of the naturally occurring inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Since its discovery in the 1960s, studies indicated Phenibut added to a diet helps the body’s systems manage stress, anxiety and insomnia. Phenibut may potentiate the actions of selected prescription medications including epilepsy prescription medications, MAO inhibitors, tranquilizers, narcotics as well as alcohol. 

Beta-sitosterol

A plant-derived sterol, also known as a phytosterol. Plant sterols or phytosterols are common components of plant foods, especially plant oils, seeds and nuts, cereals and legumes. Scientific evidence suggests that plant phytosterols may help to maintain cholesterol levels already within the normal range by inhibiting absorption of dietary cholesterol when consumed as part of a low cholesterol dietary program. 

β-Hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB)

A metabolite of the essential amino acid L-leucine (one of the essential branched-chain amino acids). Small amounts of HMB are found in a variety of plant and animal sources, which include alfalfa and catfish. As with other amino acid-related substances, HMB appears to play a role in the synthesis of protein—including the protein that builds new muscle tissue.
It is hypothesized that HMB supplements may signal the body to slow down destruction of muscle tissue. Although the evidence is limited, HMB may enhance strength and muscle mass in response to weight training and may help prevent muscle damage during prolonged exercise. 

Bilberry extract (fruit - Vaccinium myrtillus) – Standardized to anthocyanosides

An extract standardized to contain bioflavonoids known as anthocyanosides, which may support eye health, by acting as antioxidants. Evidence suggests they may also improve microvascular blood flow and provide gastroprotective effects.

Biotin

A water-soluble B vitamin that plays a role in carbohydrate utilization and the production of important fatty acids. Biotin assists in metabolism of fatty acids and utilization of B vitamins. It is also important in energy producing steps during metabolism in the cells of the body. 

Black currant

The small, shrubby perennial tree, native to central and northern Europe, northern Asia and New Zealand, produces this dark purple to almost black edible berry. Black currants, also called cassis berries, have been consumed as a food and used in traditional herbal medicine for centuries. Black currant berries have very high levels of anthocyanins, compounds that possess high levels of antioxidant capacity, and that are also responsible for the berry's dark purple-black color. Black currants are also high in polyphenolics and vitamin C.

Boron

Found in a variety of similar minerals all related to borax, sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7•10H2O). It is a relatively rare element in the earth's crust, representing only 0.001%. Borax is necessary in small amounts for plant growth and is considered an essential nutrient. This trace element is thought to support the activity of vitamin D in enhancing calcium and estrogen metabolism.

Boswellia extract (gum resin – Boswellia serrata) – Standardized to boswellic acids

Obtained from the Boswellia serrata tree that grows in the dry hills of India. The active compound found in boswellia are boswellic acids, which may help the body respond to intestinal inflammation.

Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA): [L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-valine]

Essential amino acids involved in muscle repair and protein synthesis. Also used by skeletal muscle for fuel and tissue repair during strenuous exercise when carbohydrate stores are depleted. Of these three amino acids, L-leucine is most important for helping prevent loss of muscle mass, maintenance of exercise quality and exercise intensity. Additionally, BCAAs support recovery following workouts.

Burdock extract (root – Arctium lappa)

This biennial plant grows in open spaces and along roadsides around the world. Burdock grows from a fleshy taproot and produces large, heart-shaped, hairy leaves and red-violet flower heads surrounded by numerous hooked bracts that form a bur-like cup. Traditionally used to treat occasional gastrointestinal symptoms and skin conditions, it is thought to have immunological and anti-inflammatory activity. May help maintain liver health. 

Caffeine

A trimethylxanthine alkaloid derived primarily from coffee and tea. It exhibits stimulatory actions in the central nervous system and muscles, and enhances mental energy and focus. Caffeine promotes alertness and focus by increasing norepinephrine excretion and enhancing neural activity. Many of its effects are due to its competitive antagonism of adenosine receptors.

Calcium

A major mineral for bone health along with calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium. Calcium is essential for developing and maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It also assists in blood clotting, muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Calcium is a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions.

Calcium caseinate

A high protein, high calcium nutrient derived from milk. Caseinates aggregate in the stomach so that the protein peptides and amino acids pass more slowly through the gut, which enhances a feeling of satiety while prolonging the supply of nitrogen to the muscle tissue.

Carbohydrates

The basic building block of a carbohydrate is a sugar molecule, composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet. They provide the body with the fuel it needs for physical activity and for proper organ function. Carbohydrates come in a variety of forms. The most common and abundant are sugars, fibers and starches. 

Carrageenan

Carrageenan is the name given to a family of hydrocolloid polysaccharides obtained from the red seaweeds. This plant-based gum serves as both a thickener and an aid in moisture retention.

Casein (Modified)

A well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80 percent of the proteins in cow's milk, but only 40 percent in human milk. Casein is an efficient nutrient, supplying not only essential amino acids, but also some carbohydrates and the inorganic elements calcium and phosphorus.

Cat's claw (bark - Uncaria tomentosa)

This extract is a traditional medicine from the Amazon rainforest. Historically, it is a vine whose bark is brewed into a tea for treating various inflammatory disorders. Cat's claw balances immune function and is an excellent adaptogen.

Chamomile (flower - Matricaria chamomilla)

German chamomile is a sweet-scented, smooth, branched annual growing to two-and-a-haf feet in height. It is native to Europe and Western Asia, and has become widely naturalized in the United States. Chamomiles have been used for centuries in teas as a mild, relaxing sleep aid and for its anti-inflammatory properties.

Chitosan

Chitosan a polysaccharide produced by grinding shells from shellfish such as shrimp, lobster and crabs into a very fine powder. This powder is then deacetylated, or stripped of specific chemical groups that allow the compound to have polar binding sites and high absorbability. Chitosan is known for its ability to bind fats, oils and bile acids and increase excretion of these materials.

Chokeberry (fruit - Aronia)

Two to three species of Aronia, deciduous shrubs commonly found in woodlands and swamps, are native to eastern Europe and eastern North America. Chokeberries, the fruit produced by these shrubs, range in color from red and purple to black, have an astringent flavor and are high in anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and vitamin C.

Cholecalciferol
Choline

Choline is a nutrient chemically known as trimethylethanolamine. It can aid in formation of a number of important substances in the body essential for nerve function and protection, muscle control, memory and many other functions. Utilized for producing important constituents (phospholipids) involved in brain and heart functions and energy utilization. A building block for acetylcholine, a key brain chemical involved in memory, mental processes and nerve as well as muscle functions. Choline also serves as a methyl donor in one carbon metabolism.

Chromium

An essential trace element involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. It primarily increases the efficiency of insulin. Supplemental chromium administered to individuals with impaired glucose tolerance may lead to improved blood glucose, insulin and lipid variables. It appears to support lean muscle production in humans. Response to chromium is dependent upon the form and the amount of supplemental chromium. 

Citrus flavonoids

Flavonoids comprise a large group of low molecular weight polyphenolic phytochemicals found in plants. They have been categorized into six families based on their chemical structures. These families are chalcones, flavones, flavonols, flavanones, anthocyanins and isoflavonoids. Flavonoids from citrus fruits include rutin, hesperidin, quercetin and naringin. These flavonoid compounds have shown the capacity for antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vitamin C sparing action and beneficial effects on blood flow.

Cocoa

Cocoa is a fine-textured chocolate powder that is made from ground roasted cocoa beans with most of the fat removed.

Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10)

A quinone coenzyme with an isoprenoid tail, also known as ubiquinone, found virtually in all body cell membranes and energy compartments. The conversion of energy from carbohydrates and fats to ATP, the form of energy used by cells in the body, requires the presence of coenzyme Q. By functioning as an antioxidant, it may also protect tissue components by helping neutralize free radicals and reactive oxygen species produced during metabolism.

Coleus extract (root - Coleus forskohlii) – Standardized to forskohlin

The active ingredient found in coleus extract is forskohlin. Forskohlin in the diet may help increase lean body mass and help reduce body fat during periods of exercise. This ingredient also helps support the breakdown of fats to be used as fuel in the body. 

Copper

Copper is an essential mineral that is an integral part of numerous enzyme systems involved in health. Plays a role in iron metabolism, melanin synthesis, central nervous system function, the synthesis and cross-linking of elastin and collagen, bone formation and skeletal mineralization.

Cranberry juice powder (fruit – Vaccinium macrocarpon)

Traditionally added to the diet to help the body’s defenses against and response to urinary tract infections. Contains proanthocyanidins that may interfere with the bacterial adherence to the urinary tract which contributes to urinary tract infections. 

Crataegus oxyacantha (leaf and fruit)

Also known as Hawthorn, Crataegus is a thorny shrub or small tree which is a member of the Rosaceae family, and is native to temperate areas of North America, Europe and Asia. The shrub produces small red berries and has been used in traditional herbal and Chinese medicine. The primary groups of bioactive constituents of this shrub are flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins.

Creatine

A nitrogenous organic acid synthesized from the amino acids glycine, L-arginine, and L-methionine that is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates, mainly in the form of phosphocreatine and which supplies energy for muscle contraction. It plays a very important part in cell energy production and supports the bodies management of both total and fat-free body mass.

Cyanocobalamin
DHA

DHA - Docosahexaenoic acid, as well as EPA and other long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, is an important structural component of cell membranes. DHA is selectively incorporated into retinal cell membranes in very high concentrations, and scientific data indicates it is required for normal development and function of the retina. Phospholipids of the brain's gray matter also contain high proportions of DHA indicating its importance to central nervous system function. 

Digestive Enzymes

Include pancreatic enzymes, plant-derived enzymes and fungal-derived enzymes, which comprise three classes of enzymes: proteolytic enzymes needed to digest protein, lipases needed to digest fat, and amylases needed to digest carbohydrates. Digestive enzymes improve absorption of food and facilitate digestive processes. Examples of plant-based digestive enzymes include:

  • Papain: An enzyme extracted from the unripe fruit of the papaya (Carica papaya) that catalyzes the lysis of proteins and is used as a digestive aid.
  •  Bromelain: Found most commonly in the stem of the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus). It is a mixture of sulfur-containing proteolytic enzymes or proteases. It also contains several other substances in smaller quantities, including perioxidase, acid phosphatase, protease inhibitors and calcium.
  • d-Limonene: A naturally occurring terpene found in orange peel and citrus fruits. It is a major aroma component of essential oils obtained from orange, grape fruit, lemon, dried fruits of black pepper, and white and black pepper. d-Limonene has been shown in clinical studies to possess antineoplastic activity.
D-Ribose (related compound deoxyribose)

D-ribose is classified as a group of monosaccharides, aldoses, pentoses and reducing sugars that are building blocks of nucleic acid RNA (Ribose). It allows cells to greatly increase adenine nucleotide salvage and de novo synthesis while preserving nucleotide pools and increasing concentrations of ADP and ATP. D-Ribose is rapidly metabolized and converted into body glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway.

Echinacea extract (aerial - Echinacea purpurea) – Standardized to phenols

A member of the sunflower family (Compositae or Asteraceae). Nine species are found exclusively in the United States and Canada. The genus name is derived from the Greek echinos (hedgehog or sea urchin), referring to the prickly scales of the dried seed head. Echinaecea has a long history of medicinal use, both in the United States and Europe. Much of the research has focused on the use of Echinacea as a non-specific stimulant to the immune defense system. Active constituents include high molecular weight polysaccharides such as hetroxylan and arabinoglactan as well as the lower molecular weight compounds chicoric acid and echinacosides.

Elderberry (fruit - Sambucus nigra L)
This berry is the small blue-black berry of a deciduous tree, Sambucus nigra L., native to Europe, Northern Africa and Western and Central Asia. Elderberry has a long history of traditional use among Native Americans and in traditional European medicine, with antioxidant, antiviral and anti-inflammatory actions among the reported historical and traditional benefits. Elderberries are rich in flavonoids, vitamins C, B1, B2 and B6, lectins and anthocyanins, and the berries are also incorporated into food and condiments for coloring and flavor.
Eleuthero extract (root - Eleutherococcus senticosus)– Standardized to eleutherosides

Also known as Siberian ginseng. A plant indigenous to China, Japan, Korea and Siberia. One of the first plants known as adaptogens to be studied by the Russian scientist Dr. I. I. Brekhman for its restorative properties.

Enzyme hydrolyzed whey proteins

Whey protein is a pure, natural, high-quality protein from cow's milk. It is a rich source of the essential amino acids needed on a daily basis by the body. Whey protein is an excellent protein choice for individuals of all ages. It provides a number of benefits in areas including sports nutrition, weight management, immune support, bone health and general wellness. Whey protein provides an excellent source of glutamine and amino acids that are essential for muscle building, enhancing endurance and supporting the immune system. Enzyme hydrolyzed whey proteins have had their molecular chains partially disassembled by enzyme actions as a part of the manufacturing process prior to use as an ingredient. This added manufacturing step greatly facilitates digestion of the whey proteins after consumption, speeding up their availability to the body's metabolic processes.

EpiCor®
EpiCor is a complex, natural yeast-based fermentation product comprised of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and antioxidants. EpiCor supports immune health by promoting efficient activity of humoral responses and by suppressing inappropriate adaptive responses, thereby helping balance the immune system and maintain wellness. Research demonstrates that EpiCor increases levels of secretory IgA which supports the mucosal barrier and activates the immune components, natural killer cells and B cells. EpiCor has also demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Fiber

Basically the portions of fruits, vegetables, whole grains that the human digestive system cannot break down so they pass through the system. Chemically, fibers are non-digestible carbohydrate and carbohydrate-related substances. Fiber by itself provides no nutrients, but its passage through the digestive tract is greatly beneficial because it helps push along other waste and helps maintain the integrity of the intestinal lining. Fiber aids regularity, promotes weight management, helps slow glucose absorption from the small intestine, inhibits absorption of cholesterol and bile acid from the small intestine, and is believed to play a role in lowering risk of heart disease.

Fiber blend

Gums (gum arabic & guar gum) – mostly soluble fiber
Celluloses (cellulose powder & oat bran) – mostly insoluble fiber
Fruit pectins (apple & citrus pectin) – mostly soluble fiber
Psyllium seed – mostly soluble fiber

Folic Acid

Is a B complex vitamin, which is necessary to optimize physiological function and health. Folic acid is important in the utilization of proteins (amino acids). It is also involved in one carbon metabolism including the methylation of homocysteine to L-methionine and DNA synthesis. Folic acid also plays an important role in pregnancy.

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS)

Refer to short-chain oligosaccharides comprised of D-fructose and D-glucose, containing from three to five monosaccharide units. FOS are resistant to digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. They act to stimulate the growth of Bifidobacterium species in the large intestine and thereby facilitate digestion and intestinal function. FOS are marketed in the United States in combination with probiotic bacteria and in some functional food products. They are also referred to as prebiotics.

Fructose

A simple sugar found in honey and in the fruit and other parts of plants. It is much sweeter than sucrose (cane sugar). Chemically it is a monosaccharide (see carbohydrate) with the empirical formula C6H12O6. It has the same formula as glucose but differs from it in structure (see isomer). 

Garcinia extract (fruit - Garcinia cambogia) – Standardized to hydroxycitric acid

Its active ingredient, (-)-hydroxycitrate (HCA), is an inhibitor of ATP-citrate-lyase, a cytosolic (extramitochondrial) enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloactetate and acetyl-CoA. HCA is believed to reduce the pool of acetyl CoA, limiting the bioavailability of 2-carbon groups required for the synthesis of lipids and cholesterol. In view of this, HCA might promote weight maintenance by inhibiting or limiting the capacity for de novo lipogenesis. Administration of HCA reduces energy intake in humans in short-term studies. Some human studies have claimed that extracts containing HCA increase fat oxidation and decrease appetite in short-term studies. Other studies have indicated that the ingestion of a Garcinia cambogia, HCA containing extract and a form of chromium helps weight management in human subjects. 

Garlic powder, odorless (bulb - Allium sativum)

Garlic has been used as a medicine and health-promoter for 5,000 years. It was widely used in ancient Assyria, Egypt, India, Greece and China. The chemistry of garlic is extremely complex, but research indicates that it is the unusual organosulfur compounds relatively unique to garlic that promote a broad range of lipid lowering, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. 

GenoPause™ herbal blend

Is a unique, clinically studied blend of four non-estrogenic herbal extracts, Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera and Commiphora mukul.

  • Tinospora cordifolia, also called Guduchi, is a common deciduous climbing perennial shrub native to tropical India, Burma and Ceylon. Extracts of the stem of this herb yield diterpenoids and glycosides. Guduchi has long been used in Ayurvedic medicine and is thought to exert anti-tumor, analgesic, antipyretic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and adaptogenic effects.
  • Asparagus racemosus, also known as Shatavari, is a creeping plant common throughout tropical and subtropical India, Ceylon, Sri Lanka, parts of Australia, tropical Africa, and up to 4,000 feet altitude in the Himalayas. An extract of the root yields saponins and asparagosides. It has had wide use in Ayurvedic medicine as an adaptogen and as a female tonic for overall health and vitality. It is reported to have antitumor, antimutagenic, antioxidant and antibacterial effects.
  • Withania somnifera, also called Ashwaganda, is a tall evergreen shrub that grows prolifically in drier parts of India, Nepal, Pakistan, Ceylon, Sri Lanka, Iraq and Bangladesh, and is commercially cultivated in the Madhya Pradesh province of India. Root and leaf extracts are reported to have antibacterial, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and antioxidant effects. It is also valued as an adaptogen. Ashwaganda is a source of alkaloids, withanolides, glycosides and a falconoid.
  • Commiphora mukul, also called Guggul, is a flowering shrub or small tree native to northern India but is also found from northern Africa to central Asia. An extract known as gugulipid, from the resin of the tree, contains diterpenoids and sesamin among other compounds and has been used for cardiovascular health in Ayurvedic medicine in India for approximately 3,000 years. Guggul has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory effects as well as hypolipidemic effects.
Ginger (root - Zingiber officinale) – Standardized to gingerols

A large tuberous perennial plant native to southern Asia, now cultivated extensively in almost all tropical and subtropical countries, especially China, India, Nigeria, Australia, Jamaica and Haiti. Ginger has been used as a medicine since ancient times and is official in the national pharmacopoeias of Austria, China, Egypt, Germany, Great Britain, Japan and Switzerland. Modern human studies have investigated ginger as an anti-emetic, anti-nausea treatment, a prophylactic against motion sickness and/or seasickness and for its effect on human platelet function. Studies also show it supports digestion and acid production necessary for calcium absorption.

Glucosamine

Glucosamine is a form of amino sugar that plays a role in cartilage formation and repair. It is an essential building block used as an intermediate substrate (proteoglycans) in the production of cartilage. In addition to serving as a building block for the synthesis of proteoglycans, the presence of glucosamine acts as a stimulus to the cells that produce proteoglycans.

Glycerin (Glycerol)

A clear, sweet syrupy liquid extracted from animal fats and vegetable oils. It is used in small amounts in some cake, bar, pastry, and icing mixtures to keep these products moist and to extend their shelf life.

Glycine

One of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. Glycine is structurally the simplest of the a-amino acids, having merely a hydrogen atom for a side chain, and is thus very unreactive when incorporated into proteins. Glycine participates in several important reactions, including the biosynthesis of heme, an important constituent of hemoglobin, and the biosynthesis of L-serine (another amino acid), purines (constituents of genetic material), and glutathione (a coenzyme and antioxidant). 

Golden root (root - Rhodiola rosea) – Standardized to glycosides

Rhodiola is a perennial plant with a thick rhizome, fragrant when cut, that grows primarily in dry sandy ground at high altitudes in arctic areas of mountainous regions in the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. For centuries, rhodiola has been used in the traditional medicine of Russia, Scandinavia and other countries. Rhodiola has been extensively studied as an adaptogen with various health-promoting effects, including increasing a body's resistance to stress, enhancing immunity, facilitating oxygen transport, increasing capacity for exertion and for serving as an antioxidant. 

Gotu kola (leaf/stem/flower - Centella asiatica)– Standardized to triterpenoids

A slender, creeping plant that grows commonly in swampy areas of India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, South Africa and the tropics. Studies indicate that it may exhibit properties of immune system support, anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidant activity as well as providing support for production of collagen and cartilage. Gotu kola is traditionally employed as a brain tonic for promoting memory, cognitive function and mental well-being. Studies have demonstrated that the extract is helpful in relieving occasional anxiety, promoting relaxation and a positive mood and exhibiting positive results on learning and memory. 

Graminex™ flower pollen extract (pollen - Secale cereale, Zea mays, Phleum pratence)– Standardized to water and lipid portions

An extract prepared from the pollen of rye grass, maize and timothy grass. It comprises a water-soluble and a lipid-soluble fraction. The latter fraction contains phytosterols. In vitro studies suggest that pollen extracts may have anti-androgenic effects, may inhibit 5α-reductase activity, relax urethral smooth muscle tone and increase bladder muscle contraction, act on the alpha-adrenergic receptors and relax the internal and external sphincter muscles, and inhibit the production of cytokines. Clinical studies suggest that the extracts improve urinary health. 

Grape extract – Standardized to phenols (seed/skin - Vitis vinifera) and Grape seed extract

The extract contains polyphenols, which consist of (+)-catechin monomers, procyanidin oligomers and polymers, and is particularly rich in proanthocyanidins. These are short chains of catechins or flavanols, which exert profound effects of gene expression and are powerful antioxidants. 

Guar gum

A soluble fiber extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, where it acts as a food and water store. Guar gum is a natural high molecular weight polysaccharide composed of galactan and mannan units. Polysaccharides are complex sugar molecules with nine or more simple sugars (monosaccharides) linked together. Several studies have found significant decreases in cholesterol levels after administration of guar gum in humans. It is used as a binding, thickening, suspending and stabilizing agent in foods, beverages, lotions and creams.

Guarana extract (seed – Paullinia cupana) – Standardized to caffeine
The extract is standardized for caffeine.
Paullinia cupana is a berry, which grows in Venezuela and Brazil. Guarana is used in South America to prepare an energy-stimulating beverage similar to coffee or tea. Caffeine is the primary ingredient in guarana responsible for energy stimulation. Caffeine is a trimethylxanthine alkaloid derived primarily from coffee, tea and kola nut.

Caffeine modulates adenosine receptors and increases the turnover of several monoamine neurotransmitters in body cells, including serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline, vital for brain function. In addition, this purine derivative also augments CNS activity, lipolysis and respiration. Caffeine stimulates thermogenesis and increases energy expenditure dose dependently in human subjects. Single-dose oral administration of caffeine increases the resting metabolic rate of both lean and post-obese human volunteers, and improves diet-induced thermogenesis observed in the post-obese subjects. Caffeine, at commonly consumed doses, can have a significant influence on energy balance and may promote thermogenesis. 


Hawthorn extract leaf/flower - Crataegus laevigata)– Standardized to vitexin-rhamnoside

A common, thorny shrub that grows on hillsides and in sunny wooded areas of North America, Europe, western Asia and North Africa. The leaves, flowers and berries of hawthorn contain bioflavonoids such as oligomeric procyanidins, vitexin, quercetin and hyperoside that are thought to be responsible for the herbs positive health benefits. Hawthorn in the diet is known for providing numerous cardiac benefits including improved coronary blood flow, blood flow in the extremities and supporting cardiac muscle. 

High fructose corn syrup

A portion of the glucose in ordinary corn syrup is converted to fructose through the incubation with the enzyme glucose isomerase. This process, invented by Japanese researchers in the 1970s, increases the fructose content of corn syrup to 42 percent. Because fructose is a much sweeter monosaccharide than glucose, the sweetness of the syrup increases relative to corn syrup. 

Honey

Honey is a sweet, viscid fluid produced by honeybees from the nectar of flowers. The nectar is taken from the flower by the worker bee and is carried in the honey sac back to the hive. It is transformed into honey by enzymes produced in the honey sac, which convert the natural sucrose (a complex sugar) in the nectar into fructose and glucose (simple sugars). From earliest times, until cane sugar became commercially important, honey was a major sweetening agent. Honey is easily absorbed and utilized by the body. It contains about 70 to 80 percent sugar; the rest is water, minerals and traces of protein, acids and other substances.

Hops (flower - Humulus lupulus)

A perennial herbaceous vine native to Europe and western Asia that is now cultivated in North and South America, Africa, Asia and Australia. Although portions of this plant have been used in making beverages for centuries, hops also has a long history of folk medicine applications such as calming and sleep promoting activity. Various flavonoids are believed to be responsible for the beneficial effects.

5-Hydroxytryptophan

An intermediate formed from the essential aromatic amino acid, L-tryptophan. The production of 5-hydroxytryptophan is the first step in the synthesis of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), which functions primarily as a neurotransmitter, and melatonin, the principal hormone secreted by the pineal gland. These substances are believed to have effects on mood and performance. 

ID-alG™

ID-alG is an extract of brown seaweed harvested off the coast of Brittany which contains naturally concentrated minerals and trace elements. The extract is also rich in marine polyphenols and antioxidants. Studies show ID-alG inhibits the digestive enzymes, lipase and amylase. By decreasing the body's fat and carbohydrate assimilation, ID-alG may help control caloric intake and reduce fat storage. 

Inosine

A nucleoside involved in the formation of purines and a compound with possible roles in energy metabolism. Inosine supports regeneration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle activity is fueled in part by ATP. When the body's reserve of ATP is depleted, it loses energy and strength. Inosine appears to work by making ATP last longer. Inosine provides a safe and effective way to enable the body to utilize oxygen more efficiently. The result is greater strength, energy and stamina and simultaneous promotion of lean body weight.

Inositol

A naturally occurring nutrient which is a precursor of phospholipids. It is synthesized in the body from glucose and is metabolized to phosphatidylinositol. Inositol helps establish healthy cell membranes and maintain proper electrical energy and nutrient transfer across the cell membrane. Inositol is also involved in the conversion of fat into other useful products.

Inulin

Inulin is a natural storage carbohydrate found in numerous edible plant species including chicory, artichoke, leek, onion, asparagus, wheat, barley, rye, garlic and bananas. It has a mildly sweet taste and filling in a manner similar to starches but is not absorbed by the body so it does not have an effect on blood sugar levels. It resists digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and is fermented by microflora, primarily lactic acid bacteria, in the large intestine. For that reason, it provides the same positive effects of soluble fiber in the diet.

Iodine

A trace element associated primarily with the thyroid gland where it participates in the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are involved in regulating growth, development and metabolism. 

Iron

A mineral that plays an important role in immune function, cognitive development, temperature regulation and energy metabolism; a component of various proteins which are involved in the transport and metabolism of oxygen; plays a role in alcohol metabolism, drug detoxification and carcinogen excretion; involved in the breakdown of toxic oxygen species; functions as a cofactor for some enzymes including those involved in the synthesis of collagen and various neurotransmitters including dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and serotonin.

Kola nut extract (fruit - Cola acuminata) – Standardized to caffeine

Kola (Cola) is cultivated in Western Africa, West Indies and Brazil. Caffeine is the most notable active ingredient in kola nut extract.

L-Arginine

A conditionally essential amino acid necessary for protein synthesis, a precursor to nitric oxide, and a compound responsible for multiple functions within the body including supporting the immune system and increasing blood flow (vasodilation). In addition, it participates in the maintenance of muscle and lean tissue throughout the body. The body does produce this amino acid; however, in some instances production may not be ideal.

L-Carnitine

Is essential for the transport of fatty acids into the cellular organelle, mitochondrion, for conversion into energy by oxidation. It has a structure similar to that of amino acids and is formed from L-lysine and L-methionine.

L-Citrulline

An amino acid that is not normally present in protein. L-Citrulline is created in the body as an intermediate in the conversion of the amino acid L-ornithine to L-arginine in a metabolic pathway called the urea cycle. L-Citrulline was first isolated from watermelon. The term citrulline was coined from citrullus, the Latin name of the watermelon.

Lemon Balm Extract (Melissa officinalis)

Lemon Balm is a member of the mint family and  is native to Southern Europe and middle Asia, particularly in mountainous areas of Turkey. Historically, lemon balm was used for insomnia, stress, occasional anxiety, and for its antiviral and relaxation effects. Active compounds include monoterpenoid aldehydes, flavonoids, polyphenols and monoterpene glycosides.

LeptiCore®

LeptiCore is a nutraceutical blend of plant polysaccharides, esterified fatty acids, pomegranate extract, beta-carotene and blue-green algae. This proprietary blend helps protect against oxidative stress, helps support healthy cardiovascular function and promotes healthy weight management and metabolic wellness. (LeptiCore® is a trademark of Gateway Health Alliance Inc., and is protected under US Patent 6,899,892 and patents pending.) 

Leuzea extract (root – Rhaponticum carthamoides) – Standardized to piperidine

Rhaponticum carthamoides is an herbaceous perennial growing between 4,500 to 6,000 feet above sea level. The plant can be found growing wild as well as cultivated in Southern Siberia, Kazakhstan, and Russia and Eastern Europe. Rhaponticum root contains antioxidant catechins, flavonols, flavonoids and chlorogenic acid. Rhaponticum is an adaptogenic plant that may exert a beneficial effect on memory and learning, as well as increase working capacity of tired skeletal muscles.

L-Glutamine

The most abundant amino acid in plasma. It helps enhance immune function, is important in the preservation of muscle mass, and is a neuroactive precursor needed for optimal mental functioning. It may also help reduce cravings for sweets. It is an important fuel source for muscle and rapidly dividing cells such as the cells of the immune and gastrointestinal systems. L-glutamine is important in the synthesis of glutathione and the amino acids, L-citrulline and L-arginine. 

Licorice extract (root – Glycyrrhiza glabra)– Standardized to glycyrrhizic acid

An herbal extract containing numerous active constituents attributed with anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, expectorant, anti-tussive and anti-allergic activities. The anti-allergic activity is ascribed mainly to the action of the aglycone, beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a triterpene, has demonstrated anti-viral activity. 

L-Lysine

An essential amino acid necessary for producing carnitine, an antioxidant, necessary for transporting long chain fatty acids into the mitochondrion for energy production and utilization. L-Lysine is necessary for protein and collagen synthesis. 

L-Ornithine

L-ornithine is a nonessential amino acid that is important in the urea cycle. It is produced in the body when L-arginine is metabolized during the production of urea. L-ornithine may play a role in protein synthesis through the enhanced production of human growth hormone. Ornithine naturally occurs in fish, meat, eggs and dairy.

L-Tyrosine

A non-essential, sparing amino acid* found in dietary proteins. It is synthesized in the body from L-phenylalanine, and is believed to improve mental energy and focus by serving as a precursor for the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and thyroid hormones.
*Non-essential unless a person has PKU (phenylketonuria), then this amino acid becomes essential.

Lutein and zeaxanthin

Carotenoids found in green vegetables such as spinach, kale and broccoli. In the eye, lutein is found within the macula of the retina. The body does not make lutein or zeaxanthin, and they must be obtained by food sources or through supplementation. Lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with normal functioning of the retina, which is responsible for sharp and detailed vision. These carotenoids work in the eye by filtering out damaging ultraviolet blue light and working as antioxidants against free radicals in the eye.

Lycopene

Lycopene is a red carotenoid pigment and is one of the most potent antioxidants among dietary carotenoids. Supplementation of lycopene helps maintain heart, prostate, immune and cellular health. Studies indicate that it also diminishes the level of bone resorption in post-menopausal women. Tomatoes and tomato products are the richest dietary sources of lycopene. Other sources include pink grapefruit, watermelon, rosehip, pink guava, papaya and apricots.

Maca (Lepidium meyenii or Lepidium peruvianum)

Is a cruciferous root vegetable native to the high Andes of Peru and Bolivia, belonging to the same family as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, radish and turnip. It is the only edible plant with the ability to grow at altitudes of 9,000 to 14,500 feet and survive the harsh weather conditions, rocky soil and thin air. Maca has been cultivated for over a thousand years and has historically been used by indigenous Andean inhabitants as an adaptogen to improve stamina, endurance and energy, alleviate the effects of stress, balance hormones, improve mood, reduce menopausal and pre-menstrual symptoms and increase virility. Maca is a source of approximately 60 phytonutrients including alkaloids, tannins, saponins and glucosinolates.

Magnesium

An essential mineral vital in more than 300 enzyme-catalyzed reactions including ATP, DNA and RNA synthesis and metabolism. It is important for bone development, an important contributor in nerve and heart function and involved in the release of insulin from the pancreas and the action of insulin on cells. It is vital for cardiovascular and muscle function, helps regulate healthy levels of insulin and blood sugar, and is essential for energy production and cell division.

Magnolia extract (bark - Magnolia officinalis) – Standardized to honokiol

A widely used herb. One of the active constituents of this extract, honokiol, is a lignan (plant phenol) derivative that has antioxidant activity. 

Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa

Maitake mushroom is an edible mushroom containing beta-glucans and glycosides which possess immune enhancing effects including activating immunocompetent cells. Evidence indicates immunomodulatory effects in humans. Maitake is used as a food in Japan. 

Maltodextrin

Maltodextrin is a moderately sweet polysaccharide produced from cornstarch and used as a food additive. Being absorbed as rapidly as glucose, it is easily digestible and is a good source of rapid energy.

Manganese

An essential trace mineral found in mostly in whole grains, green leafy vegetables, dried fruits and nuts. There are several manganese depended enzymes, one of which is necessary for glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Glycosaminoglycans are components that surround collagen, elastic fibers and cells and are important for connective tissue synthesis such as collagen. Manganese is also necessary for the activation of enzymes associated with fat, protein, carbohydrate and urea metabolism.

Maqui berry – (fruit - Aristotelia chilensis)

This berry is the small purple-black fruit of a small evergreen tree, Aristotelia chilensis, native to the temperate rainforests of Chile and adjacent regions of southern Argentina. Commonly known as Chilean Wineberry or Maqui, the berry has been traditionally used as a food and in the native herbal medicine of the Mapuche Indians of Chile. The berries are a source of polyphenols, principally anthocyanins.

MariPlex-PG

A proprietary blend consisting of:
Chondroitin sulfate – a glycosaminoglycan found primarily in the bones, cartilage and connective tissue that may help support the re-forming of cartilage; Shark cartilage concentrate – obtained from the skeletal structure of sharks, contains glycosaminoglycans;
N-acetylglucosamine – a derivative of the amino sugar glucosamine found as structural component of cell walls.

Medium chain triglycerides

Edible C8 – C12 fatty acids esterfied with glycerol which are rapidly absorbed and rapidly oxidized. They provide rapid energy replenishment.

Melatonin

A derivative of L-tryptophan naturally produced in the brain that plays a central role in sleep and regulates the body's circadian rhythms. A number of studies report that supplementation with low doses of melatonin may exert immediate sleep-inducing effects. It also functions as an antioxidant and may play a role in immune function.

Metabolically balanced protein blend

A special protein blend consisting of whey protein concentrate, calcium caseinate, milk protein concentrate and branched-chain amino acids (L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-valine). It is an important energy source, crucial in functions such as formation of muscles, bones, skin and organs, blood clotting, maintenance of fluid balance, regulation of pH balance in the blood, hormone and enzyme production, immune function, formation of visual pigments and cell repair.

MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane)

The oxidized form of dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO), MSM is an organic sulfur-containing compound that occurs naturally in a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains and animals including humans. It provides support for the immune system and aids in sulfur metabolism, particularly in connective tissue.

Milk thistle extract (fruit - Silybum marianum)– Standardized to silymarin

A plant native to the Mediterranean which grows wild throughout Europe, North America and Australia. Silymarin, a potent hepatoprotectant and antioxidant is a primary component of the plant extract. Following an oral administration of silymarin, the three pharmacologically active flavones of silymarin, namely, silybin, silydianin, and silychristin, can be detected in the plasma. Oral administration of silymarin has been reported to increase superoxide dismutase activity in the erythrocytes and lymphocytes of certain human subjects. 

MycoFusions® Maitake, Reishi and Shiitake mushroom Purple Corn mycelial biomass

MycoFusions® mushroom Purple Corn mycelial biomass are nutraceutical ingredients produced from several species of medicinal mushrooms grown naturally on deeply pigmented purple corn kernels. Key nutrients from the corn are absorbed by the mushrooms through a novel fermentation process. This patented process results in mushroom superfoods which not only contain glyconutrients such as beta-glycan normally found in mushrooms but also powerful phytonutrients from the purple corn including anthocyanins and antioxidants. The merging of the health supporting properties of both plants produces nutraceutical products with unique blends of properties and benefits. 

N-Acetylcysteine

N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiolic antioxidant. It exhibits a wide range of cellular effects. NAC modulates cytokine levels in immune cells and stimulates macrophage functions. NAC is a precursor for glutathione synthesis and stimulates cytosolic enzyme activities involved in the glutathione cycle, such as glutathione reductase, which enhances the rate of glutathione regeneration. It can act by direct reaction between its reducing thiol group and reactive oxygen species. NAC prevents programmed cell death (apoptosis) in cultured neuronal cells. NAC increases mitochondrial complex I and IV specific activities both in vitro and in vivo in synaptic mitochondrial preparations from aged mice. 

Naringin extract

Naringin is one of the citrus bioflavonoids. Bioflavonoids are colorful pigments found in plants, which belong to a larger group of phytochemicals called polyphenols. Naringin appears to influence lipid metabolism by helping activate fatty acid oxidation and helping inhibit synthesis of triglycerides and fatty acids in the liver. 

Niacin

B vitamin important in all steps essential for energy production and utilization, tissue and organ function. Niacin is involved in making important tissue and body components. Niacin also promotes release of energy from foods and proper nervous system functioning.

Oatgrass extract (leaf/stem - Avena sativa)

The well-known cereal grass from which the grain oats are obtained. Besides utilizing the grain of this grass as food, the leaves and stalks of the exhibit beneficial properties. Oat grasses are used to assist in managing stress and anxiety and contain many nutrients the body requires to build itself including manganese, zinc, silicon, calcium, phosphorus and vitamins A, B-1, B-2 and E.

Omega-3 fatty acids

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential to the maintenance of health.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) – an omega-3 fatty acid (C20:5) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) – an omega-3 fatty acid (C22:6) present in large amounts in fish oils. Both are inefficiently synthesized in the body from alpha-linolenic acid and are metabolized to eicosanoids. Eicosanoids are hormone-like compounds such as thromboxane, prostaglandins and leukotrienes that are important regulators of vital body functions. DHA is especially present in the retina and brain.

Pantothenic acid, Vitamin B-5

A B vitamin involved in the metabolism and efficient utilization of fats, hormones and components necessary for immune function. This vitamin is involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates and the formation and breakdown of fatty acids in the body.

Passionflower (herb/flower - Passiflora incarnata

Passionflower is a perennial creeping vine, native to the tropical and semi-tropical southern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America. It is now cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, including Florida, Guatemala, and India. Studies have pointed to the flavonoids in passionflower as the primary constituents responsible for its relaxing and anxiolytic effects.

Peanuts (seed - Arachis hypogaea)

Widely cultivated in tropical and warm temperate regions around the world, having yellow flowers on stalks that bend over so that the seed pods ripen underground. The edible, nutlike, oily seed of this plant is used for food and as a source of oil. Peanut flour (partially defatted) is made by removing much of the oil and grinding the de-fatted residue into a fine powder. This powder is available in a range of roast levels, imparting upon products anything from bland to extremely strong peanut flavor. This ingredient provides a good source of protein to be used in formulations having a peanut flavor with reduced oil and fat content.

Phase 2®

Phase 2 is a natural extract of white kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, clinically demonstrated to delay the digestion and absorption of starchy carbohydrates without affecting the digestion of healthy carbs such as fruit and whole grains. Studies have shown that Phase 2 inhibits the activity of the digestive enzyme, alpha amylase, and allows a portion of ingested carbohydrates to pass through the digestive system without being broken down into a form the body can readily utilize. This inhibitory process may help lower the glycemic index and reduce the caloric impact of ingested carbohydrate foods. Phase 2 may assist in weight control when used in conjunction with a sensible diet and exercise program. 

PhosphoLean™

PhosphoLean is a proprietary complex of N-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (NOPE) derived from soy phospholipid and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from standardized green tea extract. This patented blend is associated with decreased appetite and satiety, increased fat oxidation and supports metabolic efficiency. (PhosphoLean™ is a registered trademark of Chemi Nutra and is protected under US Patent No. 20100179107 and other patents pending.)

Phosphorus

An essential mineral that participates in pH balance and is a component of many enzyme systems. It is essential for energy metabolism, enhances use of other nutrients, is an important component in phospholipids in cell membranes, is critical for bone and tooth enamel development and helps regulate fluid balance.

Phytosterols

Plants produce sterols similar to cholesterol in the animal world to stabilize their cell walls. While structurally similar to cholesterol, phytosterols reduce the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is associated with atherosclerosis. They presumably act by blocking cholesterol absorption. Phytosterols are found in a variety of plants including canola, sunflower, cotton and corn as well as others. Examples of phytosterols include beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol.

Polydextrose

Polydextrose is a polysaccharide synthesized by random polymerization of glucose, sorbitol, and a suitable acid catalyst at a high temperature and partial vacuum. It is used widely in many countries as a bulking agent and as a lower-energy ingredient in a variety of foods. Polydextrose is not digested or absorbed in the small intestine, and a large portion is excreted in the feces. Studies with polydextrose show physiologic effects consistent with those of dietary fiber. Polydextrose is partially fermented in the large intestine, leading to increased fecal bulk, reduced transit time, softer stools, and lower fecal pH (4-9). Fermentation of polydextrose also leads to the growth of favorable microflora, diminished putrefactive microflora, and enhanced production of short-chain fatty acids.

Potassium

A vital mineral element that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and supports metabolic processes leading to energy production. Potassium is the principal positive ion inside of cells of the body and is involved in nerve conduction, muscle contraction and normal kidney function. 

Potassium Bicarbonate

The potassium salt of bicarbonate. It produces improved mineral balance, reduces bone resorption and increases the rate of bone formation.

Probiotic culture

A blend of seven kinds of beneficial bacterial microorganisms of human origin consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Bifidobacterium bificum, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, This probiotic culture provides strains for the entire intestinal tract (large and small intestines), has natural gastric and bile resistance and is freeze dried for further shelf stability. 

Protein

Protein is made from building blocks called amino acids linked together in a chain. Of the 20 amino acids found in the body, nine are "essential" because they have to be consumed in the diet (the body cannot make them). Proteins perform myriad essential functions for the body including supplying energy and building and repairing tissues. They are highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50 percent of cellular dry weight. 

Protein and peptide concentrate

A special protein blend consisting of whey protein concentrate, calcium caseinate, milk protein isolate, L-glutamine, L-lysine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine. It is an important energy source, crucial in functions such as formation of muscles, bones, skin and organs, blood clotting, maintenance of fluid balance, regulation of pH balance in the blood, hormone and enzyme production, immune function, formation of visual pigments and cell repair.

Psyllium husk powder

Psyllium is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially as a 100 percent natural fiber that helps restore regularity. Psyllium is highly absorbent and has a high viscosity.

Pyridoxine HCL
Red clover (flower/leaf - Trifolium pratense)– Standardized to isoflavones

An herb containing a class of phytochemicals known as isoflavones. The principal isoflavones found in red clover are biochanin A and formononetin which are metabolized to the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, respectively, and are thought to demonstrate weak estrogenic activity.

Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum)

Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) is an edible mushroom. Scientific investigations have repeatedly confirmed this mushroom's beneficial effects on health in general. Active components in Reishi selectively stimulate the production of cytokines involved in the activation of immune cells and immune responses.

Resveratrol

A phytoalexin polyphenolic compound found in various plants, including grapes, berries and peanuts. It is a potent antioxidant that modulates cell signaling and exhibits properties beneficial for neurological, hepatic and cardiovascular systems. It also modifies eicosanoid synthesis, inhibits activated immune cells, and inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) via its inhibitory effects on nuclear factor B (NF-kB) or the activator protein-1 (AP-1). Resveratrol is reported to possibly slow aging in simple eukaryotes and has been suggested as a potential calorie restriction mimetic. 

Riboflavin, Vitamin B-2

Is an important component in coenzymes participating in many enzyme reactions; important for the metabolism of fat and carbohydrate; helps in red blood cell formation; promotes the release of energy from foods; essential in nervous system function.

D-Ribose (related compound deoxyribose)

D-ribose is classified as a group of monosaccharides, aldoses, pentoses and reducing sugars that are building blocks of nucleic acid RNA (Ribose). It allows cells to greatly increase adenine nucleotide salvage and de novo synthesis while preserving nucleotide pools and increasing concentrations of ADP and ATP. D-Ribose is rapidly metabolized and converted into body glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway. D-ribose aids in restoring energy and supports cardiovascular health.

Rice bran

A thin brown outer layer milled from rice (Oryza sativa), when white rice is made, which serves as a source of fiber. Research has shown positive effects of rice bran on laxation, cholesterol reduction and renal calcium reduction. Research also indicates that rice bran and rice bran oil reduce low-density lipoproteins (LDL), often referred to as the "bad cholesterol." 

Rice flour

A flour made from ground rice (Oryza sativa), containing little to no fat, no cholesterol and minimal sodium. Rice contains all essential amino acids and is a good source of B-complex vitamins and essential minerals.

Rice syrup

Rice syrup is an extremely versatile and relatively healthy sweetener which is derived by culturing rice with enzymes to break down the starches, and then straining off the liquid and cooking it until the desired consistency is reached. The final product is roughly 50 percent soluble complex carbohydrates, 45 percent maltose and three percent glucose. The glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream immediately. The maltose takes up to one-and-a-half hours to be digested, and the complex carbohydrates take from two to three hours to be digested and absorbed, providing a steady supply of energy.

Rolled oats

The familiar form of the cereal oats of the genus Avena of the family Gramineae (grass family) sold at the market as oatmeal. Rolled oats are steamed and pressed flat with steel rollers to shorten cooking time. They are a prime source of the complex carbohydrates that help to sustain energy. They contain about 50 percent more protein than bulgur and twice as much as brown rice. They contain selenium, thiamine, phosphorus and manganese, as well as copper, folic acid, vitamin E and zinc. Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat and is particularly high in soluble fiber.

Sage extract (leaf - Salvia officinalis)- Standardized to polyphenols

Sage is a widely used herb and its extracts contain a variety of polyphenols, some of which are also found in tea. The polyphenols in combination with caffeine promote energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Sage constituents may possess immunomodulatory effects and its polyphenols exhibit antioxidant effects. The components of sage extracts affect brain cell receptors, which has implications for modulating appetite and food intake.

Sage possesses liver protective effects and stimulates the digestive tract as well as containing substances with cardioprotective properties. Sage has a long history of use as a memory-enhancing agent coupled with cholinergic properties and its extract is reputed to produce cognitive enhancement. Clinical studies show the efficacy of sage extract in improving cognitive function and performance, ascribed to its inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinestrase.

Saw palmetto extract (berry - Serenoa repens)– Standardized to fatty acids.
An extract of the dried ripe fruit from the American dwarf palm tree, which is found in the coastal areas of Florida and southeastern United States. Fatty acid and sterol constituents of saw palmetto berries are believed to be the biologically active factors. Clinical studies suggest that the extracts improve functional urinary flow. 

Saw palmetto extract (berry - Serenoa repens)– Standardized to fatty acids

An extract of the dried ripe fruit from the American dwarf palm tree, which is found in the coastal areas of Florida and southeastern United States. Fatty acid and sterol constituents of saw palmetto berries are believed to be the biologically active factors. Clinical studies suggest that the extracts improve functional urinary flow. 

Schisandra extract (fruit – Schisandra chinensis) – Standardized to schisandrins

A member of the Magnoliaceae family, a woody climbing vine with numerous clusters of bright red berries. It is distributed throughout northern and northeast China and the adjacent regions of Russia and Korea. The major constituents are in schisandra are lignans. Schisandra is an adaptogenic plant used for increasing resistance to stress and increasing energy levels, physical performance and endurance. It improves liver function and is also used as a liver protectant. Schisandra has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Selenium

An essential mineral involved in factors mediating the formation of thyroid hormone. Selenium is also part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase that serves to protect proteins, cell membranes, lipids, and nucleic acids from oxidative stress in tissues and cells. 

Senna extract (leaf – Cassia angustifolia) – Standardized to sennosides

Contains the anthroquinones, sennosides A & B, that appear during the drying process of the extract. Sennosides cause contraction of the colon lining, providing a laxative effect. Senna should only be consumed occasionally, not on a daily basis. 

Shave grass extract (aerial – Equisetum arvense)– Standardized to silica

Also known as the horsetail plant, this member of the fern family grows in wet to moderately dry areas mostly in the Northern hemisphere. The high levels of silicon and other minerals found in this plant help support the use of calcium in the body and play a role in the production of skin and connective tissue.

Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes)

Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom rich in vitamins, fiber and amino acids and low in fat. This mushroom contains a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties. Polysaccharides enhance cell-mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro, and act as biological response modifiers. The polysaccharides are believed to induce gene expression of various immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors.

Silicon

A trace mineral. In the body silicon is associated with growth and development of bone, connective tissue and cartilage. Silicon is required for synthesis of L-proline and L-hydroxyproline, which are a part of the primary structure of collagen. It is also needed for the production of glycosaminoglycans.

Sodium

One of the most abundant minerals in the body. Sodium chloride or salt is important in many ways. It is an essential part of the diet of both humans and animals and is a part of most bodily fluids, such as blood, sweat and tears. It aids digestion by providing chlorine for hydrochloric acid, a small but essential part of human digestive fluid. Sodium chloride is essential to life on Earth. 

Soy lecithin

Lecithin plays a number of roles in heart health, including the lowering of total and LDL cholesterol levels. The choline delivered by lecithin can help reduce high homocysteine levels in the blood - which can be associated with a number of health-related consequences.

Soybeans (Roasted) / Soy protein isolate

The soybean is an annual leguminous plant (Glycine max), widely cultivated for forage and soil improvement and for its nutritious seeds. Soybeans are used to produce a wide variety of products including tofu (soybean curd), soybean oil, soy flour, soymilk and soy sauce. The soybean provides what is considered a complete protein because it includes all nine essential amino acids. Soybeans are rich in many naturally occurring phytonutrients including isoflavones and saponins. 

Sucralose

Sucralose is a potent non-caloric sweetener that is a heat stable derivative of sucrose. It is also known by the trade name Splenda. It is 500 to 700 times sweeter than sucrose and has been extensively researched to establish its safety profile. It was first approved for use in Canada (where it has sometimes been marketed as Splendar) in 1991. Subsequent approvals came in Australia in 1993, in New Zealand in 1996, in the United States in 1998, and in the European Union in 2004. The safety of sucralose has been confirmed by leading medical, scientific and regulatory authorities around the world including; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Joint (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization) Expert Committee on Food Additives, European Commission's Scientific Committee on Food, Health Canada and Food Standards Australia/New Zealand. As of 2005, it has been approved in over 40 countries, including Canada, Brazil, China and Japan.

Sugar

A sweet crystalline or powdered substance, white when pure, most commonly consisting of sucrose obtained mainly from sugar cane and sugar beets and used in many foods, drinks and medicines to improve their taste. Also called table sugar, sugar can be defined as any of a class of water-soluble crystalline carbohydrates, including glucose, fructose, maltose sucrose and lactose, having a characteristically sweet taste and classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides and trisaccharides.

Sugar alcohols (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol)

are carbohydrates with a chemical structure that partially resemble sugar and partially resemble alcohol, but they do not contain ethanol as alcoholic beverages do. While they provide a sweetness like sucrose they are slowly and incompletely absorbed and metabolized by the body, and consequently contribute fewer calories. Some sugar alcohols used by AdvoCare include maltitol and lactitol. 

Suma extract (root – Pfaffia paniculata) – Standardized to saponins

Suma is a large ground vine with a deep root system that has a propensity to spread. It can be found in various tropical locations such as the Amazon Basin in Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Three principle active ingredients have been identified in Suma: pfaffic acid, phytosterols (mainly beta-ecdysone) and pfaffosides (saponins). In addition, beta-Ecdysone has shown analgesic and anti-diabetic activities in human studies.

Sustamine™ (L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine)

Sustamine is a dipeptide of the amino acids, L-alanine and L-glutamine. This dipeptide enhances electrolyte and water absorption resulting in higher serum bioavailability and absorption of L-glutamine, compared to L-glutamine alone. It plays an important role in enhancing the immune system, muscle protein synthesis and energy production through gluconeogenesis. (Sustamine® is a registered trademark of Kyowa Hakko Bio Co., Ltd.)

Svetol®

is a non-roasted extract of select decaffeinated green coffee beans (fruit – Coffea canephora robusta P.), a variety which contains a high level and specific ratio of more than twelve cholorgenic acids, the components responsible for the bitterness of coffee. Chlorogenic acids in coffee, especially 5-caffeoylquinic acid mainly found in green coffee beans, inhibits glucose-6-phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase), a hepatic enzyme involved in the release of glucose from the liver into blood circulation, thereby helping regulate glucose metabolism and support the body's breakdown of fat reserves for energy. The Coffea canephora robusta P. variety of coffee typically grows in Central and West Africa, South-East Asia and Brazil. 

(Svetol® is property of Naturex )

Taurine

An amino acid found primarily in the brain and the eye. It may aid in stabilizing cells and tissues through its antioxidative properties and in protecting the nervous system. It may a play a role in physiologic functions involved in detoxification in the cells of the body as well as helps maintain blood lipid levels and stabilizing blood platelets. It provides energy, and aids in mental focus.

Tea (leaf - Camellia sinensis)

There are three principal types of manufactured tea, namely black (fully fermented), green (unfermented) and oolong (partially fermented). The term "fermentation" refers to the oxidative transformations undergone by tea phenolics involving natural browning reactions induced by oxidizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidases) within the plant cell. The manufacture of black tea ensues oxidation of fresh tea leaf components due to the activation of polyphenol oxidases, which oxidize susceptible tea leaf polyphenol moieties culminating in the formation of brown pigments, and this process develops the color and aroma of the liquid. The production of green tea comprises the rolling and steaming of tender tea leaves, a process that minimizes the activation of enzymes and consequently oxidation. Oolong tea is a partially fermented product having components common to both green and black teas. It contains both native and oxidized catechins, its composition reflecting an intermediate range between that of green and black teas.

  • Black tea extract (leaf - Camellia sinensis) - Standardized for theaflavin,:
    Black tea is a fully fermented preparation of tea leaves. During the manufacture of black tea, a major proportion of monomeric free catechins in the fresh green tea leaf undergoes oxidative changes culminating in the generation of a series of compounds, including bisflavanols, theaflavins, epitheaflavic acids, and thearubigins, which impart the characteristic taste and color properties of black tea. This extract is a source of theaflavins and other ingredients, which are oxidized catechins. The theaflavins exhibit a number of pharmacological actions in cells, which have implications for enhancing metabolic rate.

  • Green tea extract (leaf - Camellia sinensis) - Standardized to polyphenols and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).:
    Green tea is an herb that differs from black and oolong teas, because it is not fermented. Steaming fresh leaves at high temperatures produces the extract. It is rich in polyphenols, flavanols and catechins, the most widely studied is EGCG. This extract is a source of one of the highest levels of organically bound fluorine, a key mineral for bone health. Green tea serves as an antioxidant by reducing oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. It also provides a source of energy. There are a vast array of studies documenting the effects of green tea extracts, especially EGCG and other catechins, on gene expression leading to a restoration and maintenance of health.

  • Oolong tea extract (leaf - Camellia sinensis)- Standardized to polyphenols.:
    The characteristic that separates oolong tea from green tea and black tea is that it is partially fermented. Green tea is unfermented and black tea is fully fermented. Because oolong tea is partially fermented it contains unique levels of tea flavanols commonly referred to as catechins. During the partial fermentation processes, small amounts of polyphenols are formed such as theaflavin. Oolong tea has both the active catechin components of unfermented green tea and the fermented black tea polyphenols.

    Oolong tea is able to support energy levels, support lipolysis and provide antioxidant activity through its unique combination of catechins and polyphenols. Oolong tea consumption increases energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

  • White tea extract (leaf - Camellia sinensis) - Standardized to polyphenols.:
    White tea extract is derived from unfermented tea leaves and young and tender tea buds. It is a source of flavan compounds, which are known as tea catechins. The principal catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and other tea catechins are potent antioxidants. The oral administration of tea catechins and caffeine to human subjects stimulated energy expenditure and fat oxidation, thus indicating the potential of tea components to influence body weight and body composition. Human studies report that ingestion of a mixture of tea catechins in the absence of caffeine promotes weight reduction.
Thiamine, Vitamin B-1

Essential for converting carbohydrates from the diet to energy. Needed for normal functioning of the nervous system and muscles, including heart muscle. 

Trans-Resveratrol

Trans-Resveratrol - Polygonum cuspidatum root (also known as Japanese knotweed) is the trans- isomer of resveratrol. Resveratrol appears to be well-absorbed by humans, but its bioavailability is low because it is rapidly metabolized and eliminated. Of the two resveratrol isomers, cis- and trans, the trans- configuration is the more biologically active isomer.

Tulsi extract - Standardized for ursolic acid (leaf - Ocimum sanctum)

Tulsi is native to India, where it is grown as an aromatic perennial flowering shrub, and it has been used for thousands of years in treating a wide range of health-related conditions. Tulsi is also grown as an annual herb in temperate climates. The caramel of the leaves is spicy and complex, similar to clove, and after drying, the leaves are often made into a tea. Tulsi is an adaptogenic herb having properties in common with polyphenol containing plants such as ginseng and eleuthero. The results of some studies indicate that O. sanctum induces a state of non-specific increased resistance against a variety of stress-induced biological changes in animals. A limited number of studies have shown that the herb also has a normalizing influence on blood pressure and blood sugar imbalances. Eugenol is one of the active constituents present in O. sanctum and may be responsible for many of the reported beneficial effects.

Turmeric extract (root - Curcuma longa) – Standardized to curcumin

A spice, which contains curcuminoids, a group of bioactive phenolic compounds. The major bioactive curcuminoid, curcumin, is a yellow pigment containing a diferulic acid (diferuloyl methane) derivative. Ferulic acid is ubiquitous in plants and arises from the metabolism of the aromatic amino acids, L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. Evidence indicates that curcumin exhibits a variety of effects beneficial for health and for events that help in potentiating immune function. 

Valerian root - Valeriana officinalis) – Standardized to valerenic acids

A perennial herb native to North America, Asia and Europe that has been used traditionally to help produce a calming and relaxing (anxiolytic) effect. The chemical composition of valerian includes sesquiterpenes (including valeric acid), iridoids (valepotriates), alkaloids, furanofuran lignans and free amino acids such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), L-tyrosine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine. Valepotriates are known to have sedative, hypnotic and spasmolytic effects. Studies suggest that valerian must be consumed repeatedly for one to two weeks before a benefit is noticed.

Vanadium (Vanadyl sulfate)

Vanadium is an ultra-trace mineral found in the human diet and the human body. It is essential for some animals and thought to be essential in humans. Deficiency symptoms in these animals include growth retardation, bone deformities and infertility. Vanadium may play a role in building bones and teeth. It has strong glucose lowering (anti-hyperglycemic) effects and is a common supplement used to enhance weight training.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is required for normal functioning of the immune system. It is also required for the production of blood components (red blood cell production). Vitamin A is necessary for a broad range of bodily functions including production of visual pigments, and maintenance of health in many cells of the body.

Vitamin B1
Vitamin B-12, Cyanocobalamin

Vitamin B-12 is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for processing carbohydrates, proteins and fats and which is vital for blood (red blood cell) formation as well as a healthy nervous system. Vitamin B-12 cannot be absorbed or used by the body until it combines with a special protein produced in the stomach called intrinsic factor. As individuals age they are less able to produce intrinsic factor and consequently there is less vitamin B-12 available to participate in metabolic processes. Vitamin B-12 acts as a coenzyme in the synthesis and repair of DNA. It also works with folic acid in utilizing amino acids and plays a role in one carbon metabolism.

Vitamin B2
Vitamin B-5
Vitamin B-6, Pyridoxine HCL

This water-soluble vitamin is essential for protein metabolism, nervous system and immune functions. It is necessary for the synthesis of hormones and red blood cells. Vitamin B-6 supplementation was found to be effective in lowering blood homocysteine levels after an oral dose of methionine (methionine load test) was given, suggesting that it may play a role in the metabolism of homocysteine. Managing the blood levels of homocysteine is important for maintaining cardiovascular health. 

Vitamin B-vitamin complex

Refers to the combination of water soluble (B) vitamins including thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and pantothenic acid. (See individual vitamins). The B vitamins as well as folic acid, in addition to providing a non-caffeinated source of energy, are also highly effective agents that provide positive support to the epigenome. 

Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic acid)

Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catecholamines play a role in mobilizing lipids for oxidation. In addition, vitamin C is required for the production of carnitine, which is essential for the transport of fat to the cellular organelle, mitochondrion, for conversion into energy. Vitamin C is required for the synthesis and activation of various cellular constituents, including enzymes involved in energy metabolism. It also plays a role in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids.
Vitamin C promotes healthy cell function. It is required for the synthesis of collagen, an important structural component of blood vessels, bone, tendons and ligaments. It is vital for the proper functioning of the immune system, especially for the activity of the white blood cells, which influence metabolism. 

Vitamin D, Cholecalciferol

Several structurally related forms exist including cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). It is essential for effective and optimal calcium absorption from the intestine, the efficient utilization of calcium by the body and maintaining calcium balance. It helps build and regulate bone mass and maintain bone health, and helps maintain blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Regulation of blood calcium levels is vital for bone growth and maintenance of bone density. Vitamin D can be made in the skin on exposure to sunlight.

Vitamin E

A family of eight naturally occurring compounds-four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) with widely varying degrees of biological activity. The most active form is the "d" isomer of alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is an essential nutrient for cell and tissue health, which may have a role in blood flow, immune function, and blood cell functioning and in protecting against cellular stress. The succinate form of d-alpha tocopherol, as well as mixed tocotrienols and gamma tocopherol, are used in some AdvoCare products.

Vitamin K

This essential vitamin exists in several structurally related forms including phytonadione, menaquinone and menadione. It is a cofactor that activates at least three proteins involved in bone mineralization, formation, repair and health. Vitamin K is also essential for synthesizing the liver protein that controls blood clotting. In the intestines it also assists in converting glucose to glycogen, which can then be stored in the liver.

White bean extract (seed – Phaseolus vulgaris) – Standardized to phaseolamin

A source of the pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitor, alpha AI is found in many types of beans such as the Great White Northern Kidney Bean. Alpha amylase is an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of starch. This product may therefore be useful in slowing metabolism of starch to glucose and thus helps moderate blood sugar levels in the normal range. 

White Willow extract (bark - Salix alba)– Standardized to salicin

A deciduous shrub native to Britain, Central and Southern Europe, Asia and North America. Willow bark was used in the Middle Ages to relieve fevers and pain. The glycosidic constituent salicylic acid is related to acetylsalicylic acid and is similar in biological activities, exerting analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects.

Wild yam extract (root - Dioscorea villosa) – Standardized to diosgenin

A twining vine native to the central southeastern US and found less frequently in the Appalachian region. Wild yams are a rich source of saponins including diosgenin that have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects and which may reduce exercise-induced fatigue. They may also exhibit weak hormonal activity.

Xanthan gum (gum – Xanthomonas campestris)

A high-molecular weight polysaccharide possessing a high viscosity at low concentrations with very low caloric value and excellent binding properties. Exhibits laxative and cholesterol and glucose-lowering properties. It is widely used in foods as a thickening, suspending and emulsifying agent. 

Zinc

An essential mineral that serves as a micronutrient thought to be essential in maintaining the integrity of the immune system. It plays a role in immune cell functions as well as immune responses. Zinc is required for the activity of the thymic hormone, thymulin, produced by the thymus gland involved in immune function. It is found in high concentrations within the eye, especially in the retina. Zinc deficiency has been shown to have negative effects in vision. Zinc supplementation helps support healthy eye function, acting as an indirect antioxidant in the retina. 

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